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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001843
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
..., the Restriction of Hazardous Substances Directive (RoHS), took effect [ 3 ]. The RoHS directive restricts the use of six hazardous materials in the manufacture of various types of electronic and electrical equipment. It is closely linked with the Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment Directive (WEEE...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006764
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... precise control of environment, heat input, and high-resolution instrument. IR systems are sensitive to surface emissivity. Rapid examination of large areas. Can be adapted to production inspections Circuit board solder joints, solar cells, heat-transfer equipment, metals, composites, concrete Sonic...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001441
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
...Abstract Abstract Soft-soldered copper pipe joints used in refrigerating plants failed. The solder had not adhered uniformly to the pipe surface. In addition, there were some longitudinal grooves on the pipe surfaces, parts of which were not filled with solder. The unsoldered areas formed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0089774
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
...Abstract Abstract An amusement ride failed when a component in the ride parted, permitting it to fly apart. The ride consisted of a central shaft supporting a spider of three arms, each of which was equipped with an AISI 1040 steel secondary shaft about which a circular platform rotated...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006770
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... end of the spectrum is limited by the energy of the incident electron/photon, while the low end is limited by the detection equipment. Energy-Dispersive Spectrometers Wavelength-Dispersive Spectrometers Handheld X-Ray Fluorescence Systems X-Ray Analysis in the Scanning Electron Microscope...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001385
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
...: ANSI/UL 486A Wire Connectors and Soldering Lugs for use with Copper Conductors ANSI/UL 486B Wire Connectors for Use with Aluminum Conductors ANSI/UL 486E Equipment Wiring Terminals for Use with Aluminum and/or Copper Conductors Standards 486B and 486E require that terminals intended...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001234
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
...Abstract Abstract In a copper hot water system, a bent pipe was soldered into a straight pipe with twice the diameter. The neighborhood of the soldered joint was covered with corrosion product predominantly blue-green in color, presumably carbonates. When these corrosion products were scratched...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001632
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... Properties of 304L Stainless Steel Irradiated with 800 MeV Protons,” J. Nucl. Mater. , 1999 . 10.1016/S0022-3115(99)00147-6 7. Welding, Brazing and Soldering , vol. 6 , ASM Handbook , ASM International , 1997 , p. 575 . 8. Carsughi F. , Derz H. , Ferguson P. , Pott G...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003570
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of materials with similar structure ( Ref 5 ). Therefore, equipment builders have relied on empirical comparisons of erosion resistance, such as that compiled by Heymann (Fig. 13 in Ref 2 ) for all types of liquid impact. Fig. 12 Dependence of maximum erosion rate in cavitation erosion on the combined...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003503
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Bulletin No. 9, Nov 1971 7. “Analysis Techniques for System Reliability—Procedure for Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA),” International Electrotechnical Commission, IEC Standard Publication 812 , 1985 8. “Fault/Failure Analysis For Digital Systems and Equipment,” ARP 1834...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001817
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... are similarly additive. Other significant sources of cyclic stresses are fans or pumps, which generate high-frequency vibrations in coolant circuits; turbulent fluid flow through or over tubes, such as steam flow over condenser tubes; and such upsets as water hammer in steam-generating equipment (see...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003508
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... reaction, alligator skin D 135 Grooves and roughness in the vicinity of re-entrant angles on die castings Soldering, die erosion D 140: Depressions in the casting surface D 141 Casting surface depressions in the vicinity of a hot spot Sink marks, draw or suck-in D 142 Small...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003509
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... and nondestructive inspection of welds is also described in Welding, Brazing, and Soldering , Volume 6 of ASM Handbook. Service failures of welds, similar to those of any other structural component, depend on the operating environment and the nature of the applied load and may include failures from...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003526
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... that interact. These temperature conditions cause macrothermal distortions of the entire printed circuit boards (PCBs) as well as microdistortions at the solder joints that connect the chips to the PCBs. The cyclic thermal expansions experienced during use can cause considerable thermomechanical fatigue...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0047621
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
....; Alan G. Glover, Welding Institute of Canada; Daniel Hauser, Edison Welding Institute; Edward A. Metzbower, Naval Research Laboratory; O.W. Blodgett, Lincoln Electric; the ASM Committee on Weld Discontinuities (for Welding, Brazing;, and Soldering , Volume 6 of Metals Handbook (9th ed.), 1983...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c0047570
EISBN: 978-1-62708-221-1
..., Brazing, and Soldering , Volume 6 of Metals Handbook (9th ed.), 1983), and the ASM Committee on Failure Analysis of Weldments (for Failure Analysis and Prevention , Volume 10 of Metals Handbook (8th ed.), 1975). ...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c0089766
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
... of Canada; Daniel Hauser, Edison Welding Institute; Edward A. Metzbower, Naval Research Laboratory; O.W. Blodgett, Lincoln Electric; the ASM Committee on Weld Discontinuities (for Welding, Brazing, and Soldering , Volume 6 of Metals Handbook (9th ed.), 1983), and the ASM Committee on Failure Analysis...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006773
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... of structures and components are often performed to assure that resonance problems are not a concern. In other cases, if the magnitude of a vibration spectrum is known, then the specific response of the structure can be quantified to determine actual displacement and stress fields. Large rotating equipment...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c0048808
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... heaviest, between the martensite band and the duplex structure, the structure was probably austenitic. These phase changes are predicted from the Schaeffler diagram (in the article “Hardfacing, Weld Cladding, and Dissimilar Metal Joining” in Welding, Brazing, and Soldering , Volume 6 of the ASM...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.pulp.c0047529
EISBN: 978-1-62708-230-3
... Research Laboratory; O.W. Blodgett, Lincoln Electric; the ASM Committee on Weld Discontinuities (for Welding, Brazing, and Soldering , Volume 6 of Metals Handbook (9th ed.), 1983), and the ASM Committee on Failure Analysis of Weldments (for Failure Analysis and Prevention , Volume 10 of Metals...