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solder alloys

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Published: 30 August 2021
Fig. 1 Typical stress-strain curve of a solder alloy (SAC305) More
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Published: 30 August 2021
Fig. 2 Schematic demonstration of the viscoplasticity effect of a solder alloy (SAC305). Legend number is for strain rate changing from 10 −4 /s to 10/s. More
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Published: 30 August 2021
Fig. 3 Bingham-Maxwell expression for the mechanical properties of a solder alloy More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006827
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... at the assembly level. This article covers the properties of solder alloys and the corresponding intermetallic compounds. It includes the dominant failure modes introduced during the solder joint manufacturing process and in field-use applications. The corresponding failure mechanism and root-cause analysis...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001132
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... environment. On this basis, it was concluded that creep of the solder alloy was the most probable cause of failure. Creep (materials) Fire protection Soldered joints Solders Solder alloy Creep fracture/stress rupture Background A sprinkler head unit that was installed in a smoking lounge...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001843
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... largely become a problem of the past, with the use of alloying additions, like lead, to combat it. However, the introduction of RoHS could change all of that. Tin-lead solders have been used in the electronic industry for decades because of their good conductivity, fluidity, and solderability. The lead...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001441
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... 5% antimony, which is more difficult to use than the usual tin-lead alloys. The use of this particular type of solder was a contributory factor in the production of unsound joints in the samples examined. Expansion Freezing Moisture Pipe joints Wetting Sn-5Sb Copper Joining-related...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001391
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... (e.g., overnight). As part of a quality control test program, a die shear test was performed on the resistors after solder attachment to the carrier strips. The most recent attachment shear forces varied from 0.4 to 2 kg (0.8 to 4.5 lb.). The resistors with low force values reportedly exhibited...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001674
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... noble metal, gold, was being corroded preferentially to a much more reactive alloy, the Pb-Sn-In solder. The obvious conclusion that the corrosion was due to a complexing agent, specific for gold amongst the available metals, was difficult to prove because of the small amount of corrosion product...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c0047570
EISBN: 978-1-62708-221-1
... Abstract A pipe in a chip conveyor cracked at the toe of an exterior fillet weld connecting a flange to the pipe. The chip conveyor consisted of several spool sections. Each section was made up of a length of low-alloy steel pipe and two flanges, which were welded to each end. The composition...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0047621
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... that were both welded to a flange. The case, stiffener, flange, and weld deposit were all of nickel-base alloy 718. It was observed that a manual arc weld repair had been made along almost the entire circumference of the original weld. Investigation (visual inspection, 0.5x macrographs, and 10x etched...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c0089766
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
... of low-carbon low-alloy steel that was welded to an AISI 1025 steel tube, and the improved design included placing the welded joint of the flange farther away from the flange fillet. Investigation (visual inspection and chemical analysis) supported the conclusion that the failures in the flanges...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c0048808
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
.... The structure was found to be austenitic in the area where the grain-boundary precipitates appeared heaviest. The composition of the precipitates was analyzed using an electron microprobe to reveal presence of sulfur. Microstructural changes in the weld alloy at the interface were interpreted to be caused...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006828
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... metals to ceramics. Procedures for brazing various materials such as cast irons, steels, stainless steels, heat-resistant alloys, aluminum alloys, titanium alloys, copper alloys, reactive and refractory metals, and carbon and graphite are described in Welding, Brazing, and Soldering , Volume 6...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006770
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... the service environment that has caused the cracking. The base metal elements detected also confirm that the substrate is an austenitic stainless steel. Fig. 11 Energy-dispersive spectrometer (EDS) spectrum for analysis of a stress-corrosion crack in type 304L stainless steel alloy exposed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... and weldability of conventional titanium alloys . In: ASM Handbook Volume 6: Welding, Brazing, and Soldering , 10th edn. , pp. 507 – 523 . ASM International ( 1993 ) 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001415 Selected references Selected references • Fatigue Failures , Failure Analysis and Prevention , Vol...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001822
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... some solder penetration. The same results were observed when liquid tin, lead, zinc, cadmium, or Lipowitz alloy (a tin-lead-bismuth-cadmium alloy sometimes containing indium) was used. In 1968, studies were conducted on the influence of cold work on the LME of pure iron and Fe-2Si ( Ref 27 ). Sheet...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006764
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... can be used to detect internal laws in most engineering metals and alloys. Bonds produced by welding, brazing, soldering, and adhesive bonding can also be ultrasonically examined. In-line techniques have been developed for monitoring and classifying materials as acceptable, salvageable, or scrap...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001632
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... Abstract A double-walled, hemispherical metal beam exit window made of alloy 718 developed a crack during service, leading to coolant leakage. The window had been exposed to radiation damage from 800 MeV protons and a cyclic stress from 600 MPa tensile to near zero induced by numerous...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003570
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... alloying elements, depending on the manufacturer. High magnetomechanical damping is a key property of 12% Cr steel, which serves admirably as blading in high-purity steam. Some turbines have been fitted with precipitation-hardened stainless steel (17-4 PH) blades in the next-to-last row of the low-pressure...