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solder alloys

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006827
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... at the assembly level. This article covers the properties of solder alloys and the corresponding intermetallic compounds. It includes the dominant failure modes introduced during the solder joint manufacturing process and in field-use applications. The corresponding failure mechanism and root-cause analysis...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001132
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... office environment. On this basis, it was concluded that creep of the solder alloy was the most probable cause of failure. Creep (materials) Fire protection Soldered joints Solders Solder alloy Creep fracture/stress rupture Background Visual Examination of General Physical Features...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001441
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... 5% antimony, which is more difficult to use than the usual tin-lead alloys. The use of this particular type of solder was a contributory factor in the production of unsound joints in the samples examined. Expansion Freezing Moisture Pipe joints Wetting Sn-5Sb Copper Joining-related...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001843
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
...: a forgotten issue in lead free soldering . In: 2004 SMTA International Conference Proceedings , Chicago, IL , Sept 26–30, 2004 , pp. 838 – 840 3. ROHS Directive—Directive 2002 / 95 / EC 4. Plumbridge W. : Recent observations on tin pest formation in solder alloys . J. Electron. Mater...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001391
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
...; and area 5 is the lead-tin surface alloy 31.0× In order to understand the metallurgical ramifications of a reported failure, a transverse section through a sample from group 6 was metallographically prepared. It was reported that the sample exhibited a cracked solder fillet. Examination of the cross...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001674
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... are produced in the thermal decomposition of PETN at 100 C. This was a very unusual corrosion problem in that a very noble metal, gold, was being corroded preferentially to a much more reactive alloy, the Pb-Sn-In solder. The obvious conclusion that the corrosion was due to a complexing agent, specific...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006770
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... metal elements detected also confirm that the substrate is an austenitic stainless steel. Fig. 11 Energy-dispersive spectrometer (EDS) spectrum for analysis of a stress-corrosion crack in type 304L stainless steel alloy exposed to an environment with chlorides Peak heights in the EDS...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006828
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... to join metals to ceramics. Procedures for brazing various materials such as cast irons, steels, stainless steels, heat-resistant alloys, aluminum alloys, titanium alloys, copper alloys, reactive and refractory metals, and carbon and graphite are described in Welding, Brazing, and Soldering , Volume 6...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001822
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... some solder penetration. The same results were observed when liquid tin, lead, zinc, cadmium, or Lipowitz alloy (a tin-lead-bismuth-cadmium alloy sometimes containing indium) was used. In 1968, studies were conducted on the influence of cold work on the LME of pure iron and Fe-2Si ( Ref 27 ). Sheet...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c0047570
EISBN: 978-1-62708-221-1
...Abstract Abstract A pipe in a chip conveyor cracked at the toe of an exterior fillet weld connecting a flange to the pipe. The chip conveyor consisted of several spool sections. Each section was made up of a length of low-alloy steel pipe and two flanges, which were welded to each end...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0047621
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... into a cylindrical case that were both welded to a flange. The case, stiffener, flange, and weld deposit were all of nickel-base alloy 718. It was observed that a manual arc weld repair had been made along almost the entire circumference of the original weld. Investigation (visual inspection, 0.5x macrographs...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006764
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... absorbed, particularly by coarse-grained materials. Ultrasound can be used to detect internal laws in most engineering metals and alloys. Bonds produced by welding, brazing, soldering, and adhesive bonding can also be ultrasonically examined. In-line techniques have been developed for monitoring...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c0089766
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
... flange of low-carbon low-alloy steel that was welded to an AISI 1025 steel tube, and the improved design included placing the welded joint of the flange farther away from the flange fillet. Investigation (visual inspection and chemical analysis) supported the conclusion that the failures in the flanges...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c0048808
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
.... The structure was found to be austenitic in the area where the grain-boundary precipitates appeared heaviest. The composition of the precipitates was analyzed using an electron microprobe to reveal presence of sulfur. Microstructural changes in the weld alloy at the interface were interpreted to be caused...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
.... Carpenter Technical Articles , January 1999 3. Baeslack W.A. , Davis J.R. , Cross C.E. : Selection and weldability of conventional titanium alloys . In: ASM Handbook Volume 6: Welding, Brazing, and Soldering , 10th edn. , pp. 507 – 523 . ASM International ( 1993 ) 10.31399...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001385
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... such as electrical appliances requiring 220-volt service will usually not operate if supplied with only one side of the 220-volt service. In 1968, Underwriters Laboratories published standards for wiring terminals. These have evolved to the present standards: ANSI/UL 486A Wire Connectors and Soldering...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.rail.c9001719
EISBN: 978-1-62708-231-0
... are made up of bronze cylinders with a babbitt metal coating. The bronze alloy composition is Cu-16Pb-6Sn-3.5Zn, with the babbitt composition being Pb-3.5Sn-(8–11.5)Sb. There have been many research studies looking into locomotive axle failures during the last century. A few relevant cases...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001632
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
...Abstract Abstract A double-walled, hemispherical metal beam exit window made of alloy 718 developed a crack during service, leading to coolant leakage. The window had been exposed to radiation damage from 800 MeV protons and a cyclic stress from 600 MPa tensile to near zero induced by numerous...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003570
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...,” G 32, Annual Book of ASTM Standards , ASTM 12. Feltner C.E. and Beardmore P. , “Strengthening Mechanisms in Fatigue,” STP 467, Achievement of High Fatigue Resistance in Metals and Alloys , ASTM , 1970 , p 77 – 112 13. Melton K.N. and Mercier O. , Fatigue...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003508
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... casting. Cast iron, gray cast iron, malleable irons, ductile iron, low-alloy steel castings, austenitic steels, corrosion-resistant castings, and cast aluminum alloys are the materials discussed. The article describes the general types of discontinuities or imperfections for traditional casting with sand...