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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 5 Rate of corrosion of unprotected steel in biologically active soil as a function of iron sulfide present More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c0091384
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
...Abstract Abstract A 25.4 cm (10 in.) diam gray cast iron water main pipe was buried in the soil beneath a concrete slab. The installation was believed to have been completed in the early 20th century. A leak from the pipe resulted in flooding of a warehouse. Once removed, the pipe revealed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c0047335
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
...Abstract Abstract A section of cast iron water main pipe contained a hole approximately 6.4 x 3.8 cm (2.5 x 1.5 in.). The pipe was laid in clay type soil. Examination revealed severe pitting around the hole and at the opposite side of the outside diam. A macroscopic examination of a pipe...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0046535
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... depression in the backfill revealed the site of failure. Analysis (visual inspection, electrical conductivity, and soil analysis) supported the conclusions that the failure had resulted from galvanic corrosion at a point where the corrosivity of the soil was substantially greater than the average, resulting...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c0091806
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
...Abstract Abstract A failure occurred in buried brass (92% Cu, 8% Zn) piping used to carry drinking water in wet clay soil after less than two years in service. Investigation (visual inspection, chemical analysis of both the pipe surface and water, and a comparison of the corrosion failure...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c0091292
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... that although the pipe was buried in noncorrosive sandy soil, it was found to incur stray currents at 2 Vdc in relation to a Cu/CuSO4 half cell. Recommendations included eliminating, moving, or shielding the source of stray current. Pipe couplings Stray current corrosion Water treatment systems Copper...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0091208
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... installed since start-up of the tank operation. It was noted, however, that some operational problems with the rectifier may have interrupted its protection. Investigation (visual inspection, on-site examination and testing, EDS analysis of scale deposits, and MIC testing of the soil) supported...
Image
Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 7 Current demand needed to sustain a set CP potential increases with time for steel in soil as SRB produce increasing quantities of iron sulfide. More
Image
Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 1 The pH and oxidation reduction potential for growth of anaerobic bacteria able to reduce nitrate or sulfate (dots in plots) and for soils dominated by the microbial metabolism (boxes). Aerobic bacteria grow over a wide range of pH at E h > 300 mV (normal hydrogen electrode). Source More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001765
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... in early blistering [ 2 ]. In another experiment, it has been shown that disbonding increased almost tenfold as the coating thickness decreased from the 65 mils range to 20 mils range [ 3 ]. The severity of underside corrosion is directly related to the corrosivity of the soil, which depends...
Image
Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 42 A 25 cm (10 in.) diam gray cast iron pipe that failed due to graphitic corrosion. The pipe was part of a water supply to a fire protection system. The external surface was covered with soil and the inside surface in contact with water. The pipe had been experienced cracking and through More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001697
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... of corrosion products and the soils surrounding the pipes (for those pipes that were in below ground use), and scanning electron microscopy. Visual and microscopic examinations revealed pitting corrosion at the outer (OD) and inner (ID) diametral surfaces of every pipe section that was tested ( Figures 1...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003556
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... for growth of anaerobic bacteria able to reduce nitrate or sulfate (dots in plots) and for soils dominated by the microbial metabolism (boxes). Aerobic bacteria grow over a wide range of pH at E h > 300 mV (normal hydrogen electrode). Source: Ref 19 Whatever the metabolism, electrochemical...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c9001721
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... environments that cause SCC 4 . The most likely candidate for the corrosive environment of the bonnet screws is the soil in which the valves are buried. Often times, especially in urban areas, the soil contains significant levels of ammonium and calcium due to fertilization. The salting of streets...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006788
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... that the corrosion of iron and steel in wet anaerobic soil in the presence of near-neutral pH groundwater is often very fast came as a surprise to early investigators and was attributed somewhat intuitively to MIC. The original mechanism proposed ( Ref 18 ) coupled microbial sulfate reduction to the oxidation...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001769
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... steel, general) Introduction Calcium carbonate (CaCO 3 ) precipitation is a common phenomenon found in environment such as marine water, fresh water, and soils [ 1 , 2 ]. It is a rather straight forward chemical process governed by four key factors: viz calcium (Ca 2+ ) concentration...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0091631
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... diameter by 1.7 mm (0.065 in.) wall thickness had been in service for five to six years when leakage occurred. The line was buried, with no wrapping, in a sandy, caustic soil. The line carried steam condensate at 120 °C (250 °F) with a 2 h heat-up/cool-down cycle. No chemical treatment had been given...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001165
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... of salt solutions or weak acids such as, for instance, from acidic soil or hydrogen sulfide-containing water. It appears possible that in the scrubbing water transported from the generator at least a part of the sulfate found was actually sulfide or hydrogen sulfide and was primarily responsible...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001766
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... the upper section of the screw anchor, effectively extending the center member of the anchor by 5 ft. The extension rod differs from the main section of the anchor in that it does not have the weld attached blades for anchorage into the soil, it remains above the soil level during use. Examination...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c0048596
EISBN: 978-1-62708-221-1
.... Hardenability Low cycle fatigue 1045 UNS G10450 Heat treating-related failures Fatigue fracture When a farm tractor is to be used on sticky or wet soils, it is common practice to attach dual driving wheels to the rear axles of the tractor by using fittings such as that shown in Fig. 1 . SAE, grade 5...