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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006928
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... 2 Tensile Properties The chemical composition and the long-chain nature of polymers lead to some important differences with metals. These differences include significantly lower stiffnesses, much higher elastic limits or recoverable strains, a wider range of Poisson’s ratios, and time...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001440
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... of good quality. Fig. 2 Intergranular cracking adjacent to main crack. (× 100). Fig. 3 Intergranular penetration by molten solder. (× 250). As there was an element of uncertainty as to the nature of the penetrant metal — as molten soft solder and also molten brass from...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006939
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... process that could be either a dry or a wet process. Talc Talc is commonly used as a surface-dusting material to prevent rubber compounds from sticking together. It is a naturally occurring mineral deposit of either hydrated magnesium calcium silicate or hydrated magnesium silicate. The median...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... the electrochemical nature of corrosion and provides the typical analysis of environmental- and corrosion-related failures. It presents common methods of testing of laboratory corrosion and discusses the processes involved in the prevention of environmental- and corrosion-related failures of metals and nonmetals...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006944
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... Phenolic resins 300/572 300/572 Polyimide resins 315/599 370/698 Silicone resin 70/158 70/158 Acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) −40/−40 5/41 Butadiene rubber (BR) −95/−139 −85/−121 Ethylene propylene diene rubber (EPDM) −95/−139 110/230 Natural rubber (NR) 95/203 110/230...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003571
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... primarily from the interest in the friction and wear of automobile tires and industrial seals. Schallamach carried out extensive studies on relatively softer rubbers such as polyisoprene, butyl rubber, and natural rubber ( Ref 21 , 22 ). Through extensive experimentation on the sliding of rubber against...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006850
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
.... Elastomers The study of wear of elastomers has evolved primarily from interest in the friction and wear of automobile tires and industrial seals. Schallamach carried out extensive studies on relatively softer rubbers such as polyisoprene, butyl rubber, and natural rubber ( Ref 20 , 21 ). Through...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003532
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... electron metallographic instruments, such as the scanning electron microscope, has not diminished the importance of light microscopy. Basically, the light microscope is used to assess the nature of the microstructure and its influence on the failure mechanism. The purpose in using the light microscope may...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006765
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Abstract Metallographic examination is one of the most important procedures used by metallurgists in failure analysis. Typically, the light microscope (LM) is used to assess the nature of the material microstructure and its influence on the failure mechanism. Microstructural examination can...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006919
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... sufficiently, the mode of failure can change from a ductile event to an event of extremely brittle nature. The temperature (or temperature range) over which this change in failure characteristics occurs for a given geometry and force is referred to as the ductile-to-brittle transition temperature...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003524
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... is subject to variation depending on the nature of the failure and the availability of physical evidence or background information, there are stages that are common to all successful failure analyses. The combination of these stages comprises the total investigation and analysis. The following list includes...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006943
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... of polycarbonate) Low strength and ductile, with yielding and large permanent deformation (cold drawing), leading to several hundred percent elongation (low-density polyethylene) Low strength and elastic, with no apparent permanent deformation (soft rubber). Note that the strength and toughness of elastomers...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006849
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... . This means that only a slight change in MW corresponds to a significant change in melt viscosity, unlike conventional solution techniques, which are dramatically less sensitive (η = k ( MW ) 0.6 , as shown in Fig. 12 . Fig. 11 Degree of polymerization of polybutadiene rubber at 25 °C (77 °F). MW...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003560
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... to the viscoelastic nature of polymer deformation behavior. In addition, the absolute hardness levels for polymers are much lower than those for metals and ceramics. For elastomeric materials such as natural rubbers and polyurethanes, the deformation behavior during abrasive wear may be entirely elastic, in which...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006790
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... hardness levels for polymers are much lower than those for metals and ceramics. For elastomeric materials such as natural rubbers and polyurethanes, the deformation behavior during abrasive wear may be entirely elastic, in which case resilience or hysteresis loss is important. High resilience favors...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003549
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract This article provides an overview of the electrochemical nature of corrosion and analyzes corrosion-related failures. It describes corrosion failure analysis and discusses corrective and preventive approaches to mitigate corrosion-related failures of metals. These include: change...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006915
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... –71 –96 56–65 133–149 … … Cis-1,4-polyisoprene, natural rubber –67 –89 15–50 59–122 … … Polypropylene oxide –62 –80 65 149 … … Polyethylene oxide (PEO) –55 –67 66 151 13–22 1.9–3.2 Polyoxymethylene (POM or polyacetal) –50 –58 175 347 70 10.2 Polyvinylidene...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006923
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... 260 Polyisoprene    Cis: natural rubber −73 −100 28 80    Trans: gutta percha … … … … Polymethylpentene (poly-4-methyl-1-pentene) 29 85 250 480 Polybutadiene (poly-1,2-butadiene, butadiene rubber)    Syndiotactic −90 −130 154 310    Isotactic −90 −130 120 250...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.9781627083959
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006834
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... (200 °C, or 390 °F), S 2 (250 °C, or 480 °F), S 3 (300 °C, or 570 °F), or S 4 (350 °C, or 660 °F), aims to stabilize the dimensions and forms of the bearing rings by allowing the rest of the austenite to transform itself into bainite, a more dimensional stable microstructure. However, soft...