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soft materials

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Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 14 Shell position relative to the running surface in rail 5. Vicker's hardness readings show that shell forms at the interface of cold worked and soft material. More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c0091358
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
.... Recommendations included changing the valve material to type 304 stainless steel. Nonmetallic inclusions Sulfides Valves Vending machines 303 UNS S30300 Intergranular corrosion After about two years in service, a valve in contact with a carbonated soft drink in a vending machine occasionally...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0047332
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... not removed by erosion. Chemical analysis of the pump material confirmed that it was gray iron. Conclusion Exposure of the pump bowl to the well water resulted in graphitic corrosion, which generated a soft, porous graphitic residue impregnated with insoluble corrosion products. Failure of the pump...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001076
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... Abstract The silver layer on a thrust bearing face experienced electrostatic discharge attack (the bombardment of an in-line series of individual sparks onto the soft bearing face), which destroyed the integrity of the bearing surface. The electrical attack appeared as scratches to the naked...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001516
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... drives consists of a metal, glass, ceramic, or plastic substrate coated with a magnetic material. Data errors are classified as ‘soft’ or ‘hard’ depending on their correctability. Examination has shown that hard errors are the result of an abrasive wear process that begins with contact between head...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001257
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... of a low-carbon steel in which the zone heated during welding was delineated only slightly next to the seam, the other pipe was etched much darker, i.e., higher in carbon, and the heated zone appeared to stand out darkly against the basic material. The overlapping weld was defect-free and dense...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001268
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... plastically deformed while two of the deformed leafs did not meet minimal hardness or tensile requirements. Liquid penetrant testing revealed no cracks or other surface discontinuities on the leaf springs. Material sectioned from the soft spring leafs was heat-treated according to specifications...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.med.c0048397
EISBN: 978-1-62708-226-6
... by the soft austenitic 304 stainless steel used to make the screws. The corrosion products of the plate were revealed by microprobe analysis to impregnate the surrounding tissues. Improper material selection was concluded to be the reason for the general corrosion behavior. Carbides Corrosion products...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0046418
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... (visual inspection, 100x/500x/800x micrographic examination, spectrographic analysis, and hardness testing) supported the conclusions that, as a result of improper heat treatment, the combustion-chamber material was too soft for successful use in this application. Misalignment of the combustion chamber...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001809
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract This article discusses the classification of sliding bearings and describes the major groups of soft metal bearing materials: babbitts, copper-lead bearing alloys, bronze, and aluminum alloys. It provides a discussion on the methods for fluid-film lubrication in bearings. The article...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.homegoods.c9001622
EISBN: 978-1-62708-222-8
... with the nonstained region. Some carbon and oxygen were detected in both areas, which may be suggestive of organic substances. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) revealed traces of hydrocarbons and ether/alcohol materials in the stained area, suggesting that the stain was associated with a cellulose...
Image
Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 21 Fatigue curves of type 316LR stainless steel implant material tested in bending mode. (a) S-N curves for stainless steel in cold-worked and soft condition that was tested in air and aerated lactated Ringer's solution. (b) Fatigue curve for number of cycles to failure as shown in Fig More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.homegoods.c0092135
EISBN: 978-1-62708-222-8
... Abstract A shotgun barrel fabricated from 1138 steel deformed when test firing alternative nontoxic ammunition. The test shells contained soft iron shot, which at 72 HB, is much harder than traditional lead shot (typically 30 to 40 HB). An investigation based on ID and OD profiling supported...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001642
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
..., less room for process variation, and after new material was substituted for the old, occasional problems with soft parts started to appear. Microstructural analysis of the soft parts revealed a different cause almost every time. Each cause produced a different modification in the plant process. When...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001077
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... in a region depleted of chromium and nickel. This condition coincides with a microstructural inhomogeneity consisting of large, soft ferrite grains. Its origin was probably contamination of the solidifying ingot during the consumable vacuum arc remelting operation. Bevel gears Forgings Gear teeth...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001440
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... had not played any part. Tensile stress was present at the time of the failure sufficiently high to enable solder penetration to take place. The use of soft solder as a medium for attaching name-plates directly on to stressed steel parts is not recommended. It would be preferable to use a welded...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0047912
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
.... Measurable material loss was visible over most of the bearing halves particularly in a wide region at the centerline. A brittle waxlike substance identified to be a mixture of copper and lead sulfides covered the visible shallow pits and the darkened region. Change of oil with greater frequency to prevent...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001241
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... Abstract Decarburization of steel may occur as skin decarburization by gases either wet or containing oxygen, and as a deep ongoing destruction of the material by hydrogen under high pressure. Guidelines are given for recognizing decarburization and determining at what point cracks occurred...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.rail.c9001659
EISBN: 978-1-62708-231-0
... to the running surface. Similar relationships between microhardness measurements and the shell location have been noted for other rails [ 4 ]. The shell typically forms at the interface of the cold worked material and the soft material in the bulk of the rail. At such locations large residual tensile stresses...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.med.c0048410
EISBN: 978-1-62708-226-6
... in the horizontal plane, and the fracture gap was considerably open. The screws and plates supplied by different manufacturers were revealed to be different with respect to microcleanliness (primary inclusion content) of the materials and only one of them was found to be according to specifications. The local crack...