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sodium sulfate system

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.homegoods.c9001698
EISBN: 978-1-62708-222-8
... hardness levels (210 mg/l), high levels of sulfate ions (55 mg/l), a pH of 7.6 and a sulfate-to-chloride ratio of 3:1. Analysis of corrosion product removed from the ID surfaces of the pipe section revealed that an environment rich in carbonates existed inside the pipe, a result of the hard water supply...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001701
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... results from museum facility. Property Cold Water Hot Water Alkalinity (ppm) 79 33 Bicarbonate (ppm) 79 33 Sodium (ppm) 70 20 Chloride (ppm) 13 16 Sulfate (ppm) 16 12 Iron (ppm) 0.4 1.2 Total Hardness (ppm) 25 30 pH (4.4°C) 9.6 NA pH(22.2°C) 9.1 7.3...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001323
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... aggravated by the presence of silicon and sulfur (silicates and sulfates). It was recommended that the tubes be replaced with Inconel 600 or 601, as a practical option until the carryover problem could be solved. Alkalies, environment Boiler tubes Environmental effects Inconel 600, 601 Sodium...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001832
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... underground tanks made of low-carbon steel, schematically shown in Fig. 1 . The wastes consist primarily of concentrated solutions of sodium nitrate (NaNO 3 ) and sodium hydroxide (NaOH). Each of the tanks is equipped with a purge ventilation system designed to continuously remove hydrogen gas and organic...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0090881
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
.... Environmental impurities consisting of sulfate, sulfide, sodium, lead, and copper were also detected. The levels of these impurities were not sufficient to indicate an acute introduction of these species into the steam generator secondary environment. However, crack oxide analysis indicated sulfate levels...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001336
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... Abstract Catastrophic pitting corrosion occurred in type 304L stainless steel pipe flange assemblies in an industrial food processor. During regular service the pumped medium was pureed vegetables. In situ maintenance procedures included cleaning of the assemblies with a sodium hypochlorite...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001629
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... that process changes be made to completely remove residual processing fluids from the part surfaces before electropolishing. The use of more aggressive detergents was suggested, and it was recommended also that a filtering and recirculating system be considered for use in the cleaning and electropolishing...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001697
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... Abstract Corrosion in potable and nonpotable water systems has been well documented in the past, and new research discusses innovations in water treatment and materials that are designed to enhance the quality of a water system, whether commercial or residential. This paper is a collection...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001713
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... sustains the reactions, and leads to the formation of sodium sulfate, sodium dioxide, and sulfur through the reaction given in Eq. 3 . (Eq 1) 2 N a 2 S 2 O 4 + H 2 O → 2 N a H S O 3 + N a 2 S 2 O 3 (Eq 2) 2 N a H S O 3 → N...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001827
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... N.S. : Formation and reactivity thermodynamics of sodium sulfate with gas turbine alloys . Corrosion 24 , 127 ( 1968 ) 10.5006/0010-9312-24.5.127 8. Conde J.F.G. , Erdors E. , Rahmel A. : Mechanism of hot corrosion . In: Proceeding of High Temperature Alloys for Gas...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001602
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... and 750 °C (the third stage buckets operate at approximately 650 °C) and occurs under the following conditions: Ref 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 ingestion of sodium salts, which form a deposit of sodium sulfate over the bucket profile; the presence of an undetermined level of sulfur in the fuel...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001064
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... by a demineralized water rinse to give an effluent chloride level of less than 5 ppm. If this cannot be achieved, then trisodium phosphate equal to five times the chloride concentration should be added. If any carbon steel is present in the system, then a mixture of sodium nitrite/sodium borate should...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006777
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... metallography revealed IGA under ridgelike deposits, shown in Fig. 10(c) . Deposit analysis indicated a slightly alkaline to a very alkaline (caustic) environment. Environmental impurities consisting of sulfate, sulfide, sodium, lead, and copper were also detected. The levels of these impurities were...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006788
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... - , a commonly used oxygen scavenger, can be rapidly disproportionated in situ by Desulfocapsa species to produce sulfate and sulfur or sulfide, all of which can promote corrosion ( Ref 22 ). In aerobic systems, sulfide-oxidizing bacteria such as Thiobacillus can oxidize reduced forms of sulfur to strongly...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... of reliability and increased economic costs. A failure investigation can determine the primary cause(s) of materials, components, or system degradation. Based on the analysis, corrective action to mitigate or eliminate future failures can be initiated. Analysis of the failure always begins...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003555
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... the sulfate melting points, molten sulfate deposits are formed ( Ref 28 ). Molten sodium sulfate is the principal agent in causing hot corrosion ( Ref 29 , 30 ). Chloride salts can act as a fluxing agent and dissolve protective oxide films. Air in a marine environment ingested into the combustion zone...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003556
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... in Table 3 . Table 3 Factors for the diagnosis of MIC scenarios in cooling water systems Microorganism (metabolite) Corrosion morphology Specific corrosion productsand deposits Active MIC Sulfate-reducing bacteria (sulfide) Clustered hemispherical pits on stainless steel, Carpenter...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of the location of the failure to the locations of other system components—for example, the location of a tube rupture in relation to those of burners or soot blowers—is an important phase of on-site examination. It is usually helpful for the individual making the on-site examination to have an assortment...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... to Eq 4. This also applies to corrosion in other acids, such as sulfuric, phosphoric, and hydrofluoric, and water-soluble organic acids, such as formic and acetic. In each case, only the hydrogen ion is active; the other ions, such as sulfate, phosphate, and acetate, do not participate...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003548
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... significantly from one environment to another. The position of alloys in the galvanic series for seawater is not necessarily valid in nonsaline solutions. For example, aluminum is anodic to zinc in an aqueous 1 M sodium chromate (Na 2 CrO 4 ) solution and cathodic to iron in an aqueous 1 M sodium sulfate...