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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001051
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... in the furnace and the temperature was allowed to stabilize to 540 ± 3 °C (1000 ± 5 °F) for a minimum of 30 min before the soak time began. The specimen soaked at temperature for 3 h per inch of thickness (1.5 h total soak). The specimen was furnace cooled at a rate that did not exceed 110 °C (200 °F) per...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0092142
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... of mixed martensite and ferrite. It was determined that the most likely cause of the mixed structure was nonuniform austenitization during heat treatment. The end that bent never became fully austenitic, because the furnace temperature was locally too low or because the soaking time was too short or both...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.homegoods.c9001677
EISBN: 978-1-62708-222-8
... with a change of acetone occurring every 30 min. for a period of 3h. Following this, the acetone was changed every 2h while the component soaked for a total duration of 5h. This was again followed by ultrasonic cleaning for 1 2 hour. Other chemicals were used with a soaking period of 5h...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0006398
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... approximately 0.13 mm (0.005 in.) into the tubing. In an attempt to determine if the corrosion products were active, two specimens from the corroded fuel lines with corrosion products were mounted and soaked in distilled water at room temperature for 2 and 4 days. The 2-day exposure resulted in a localized...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0047968
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
..., samples of the grease in the bearings were taken for analysis and comparison with the sample submitted with the bearing. Comparison of infrared spectrophotometer patterns indicated that the two greases were similar, but not of the same composition. The bearings were soaked and washed in a petroleum...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001805
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... condition was not inherently brittle, and confirmed that the failure mode was coupled with a service related issue. Unused exemplar scissors were next soaked in room-temperature phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) solution. These scissors cracked within 24 h of PBS- exposure time. Metallurgical analysis...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001074
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... treatment specified on the part was as follows: Normalizing the unmachined castings by heating to 1045 °C (1915 °F) and soaking for 4 h, followed by air cooling. This was repeated twice. Hardening the machined castings by oil quenching from 1040 °C (1905 °F), followed by Tempering at 315 °C (600 °F...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001127
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... that time span, both tank floats broke from their stems, causing water to flow continuously at full capacity into both tanks. Most of the water in each tank drained through the overflow standpipe into the main sewer. Only a relatively small amount soaked the carpeting and padding in adjacent rooms...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001282
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... prior to finish machining. During the annealing treatment, after a 30 min soak at 1050 °C (1920 °F), component A was furnace cooled at a rate of 120 °C/h (215 °F/h), whereas component B was air cooled. Subsequently, the parts were pickled in a solution of 10 to 20% HNO 3 , 2 to 3% HF, and water...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0048791
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... the specimen and notched. The specimens were soaked in liquid nitrogen and broken. The large grain size of the material was apparent on the intergranular fracture surface ( Fig. 1 ). A rust-colored oxide film was visible on the part of the fracture surface that corresponded to the cracked volume of material...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... grade CA-15 high-strength steel. Performance of Other Parts in Same or Similar Service The as-received impeller weighed approidmately 270 kg (600 lb) and was highly contaminated ∼100,000 to 400,000 disintegrations per minute, or dpm). The impeller was soaked and hand scrubbed in a solution of hot...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001525
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... at the weld. A sample of this corrosion debris was placed into a watch glass and soaked in a few drops of deionized water. The pH of the resulting solution indicated that it was highly alkaline, suggesting that the corrosion debris contained potassium hydroxide. This substance, which is somewhat...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001117
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... requires hydrogen monitors on the baths. To further minimize the probability of such a failure, the plating thickness specified should be limited to the minimum necessary (to reduce exposure time). If hydrogen charging is suspected, then all suspect couplings should be heat-soaked for at least 1 h at 200...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001776
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... of carbide in ASTM A128 grade B-4 is required to meet the following conditions: a solution temperature exceeding A cm by approximately 30–50 °C, soaking for 1–2 h per 25 mm of thickness at the temperature, and then quenching in agitated water. The speed of quenching is important because the section’s...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001548
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
..., it appeared that the only possible source of the corrosion could be a fire retardant in the plywood. A chemical analysis was conducted to determine if any such elements were present. One-inch square (25 by 25 mm) samples of wood were soaked in distilled water for 24 h, followed by analysis of the water...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001778
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... (austenitizing temperature, soaking time in the furnace, and lead bath temperature) vary, inappropriate microstructures such as coarse pearlite (in the case of high lead bath temperature) or bainite (in the case of low lead bath temperature) may form. Moreover, improper furnace conditions or processing...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001391
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... process, as the components are soldered to the silver carrier plate, they are soaked above 290°C (555°F), peaking at 330°C (625°F) for 110 s. Even assuming the highest possible T g for the epoxy systems in the chip, 280°C (535°F), visual evidence supports the conclusion that the material certainly...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003550
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... will not cause fracture if imposed in the absence of the stress cracking reagent. Thus conventional chemical resistance tests run on plastics, in which unstressed tensile bars are soaked in a chemical and withdrawn periodically for testing, give no indication of the possibility of ESC for any polymer-reagent...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... (Mn and Si), and impurities (P, S) in this steel is lower than one, the microstructure cannot be regenerated during soaking treatment before hot rolling [ 19 ]. In the initial microstructure, both ferrite and pearlite grains are continuous and elongated in the rolling direction, while the ferritic...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001609
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
..., thermocouples are required on both sides of the joints and at each end of the headers. Special precautions are necessary to minimize chimney effects in the tubes. ASME Sections I and VIII require the PWHT soak time to be 1 h/25 mm and 15 min minimum. Additional time is required to replenish Cr to areas...