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skin effect

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001838
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
.... This phenomenon is called skin effect. The heat has to flow from there into the entire wall thickness of the pipe, a process which is hindered somewhat by the low thermal conductivity of the alloy used. No evidence for LME or any other grain boundary irregularities could be found, neither by the authors’ nor...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0048498
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
...Abstract Abstract A graphite-epoxy tapered-box structure, which consisted of two honeycomb skin panels fastened to a spanwise spar with intermediate chordwise ribs, fractured during testing. Hinge-line deflection of the front spar was revealed. Through-thickness cracks in the forward...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001909
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
...Abstract Abstract Welded low-carbon steel bomb fins were rejected because of poor weld practice. Visual and metallographic examination revealed that the resistance plug welds that attach the outer skin to the inner spar displayed inadequate weld penetration. Recommended changes...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001646
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... that provide not only effective interlocking but also a continuous working surface for withstanding in-service wear. The compact construction and fill-factor of locked coil wire ropes make them relatively impervious to the ingress of moisture and render them less vulnerable to corrosion. However, such ropes...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001241
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
...Abstract Abstract Decarburization of steel may occur as skin decarburization by gases either wet or containing oxygen, and as a deep ongoing destruction of the material by hydrogen under high pressure. Guidelines are given for recognizing decarburization and determining at what point cracks...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c9001222
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... of the cracks. Because the die cast brass was alloyed with aluminum, these inclusions consisted predominantly of aluminum oxide. The tolerable limit in pores and oxide inclusions was greatly exceeded in the lift disk under examination. Above all, the numerous oxide skins disrupted the cohesion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001311
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... differences in the severity of the corrosive attack among different tubes, despite similar chemical compositions and microstructures, are probably the result of variations in thickness of the natural oxide surface skins that impart passivity—that is, resistance to galvanic corrosion—to alloys of this type...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006821
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... of the crown skin on Aloha Airlines Flight 243. Source: Ref 20 . Courtesy of National Transportation Safety Board Fig. 6 Diagram of the elevator hinge pin assembly Fig. 7 Failures observed on an exemplar fuselage. Source: Ref 29 , 30 . Courtesy of National Transportation Safety Board...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003512
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... (−250 °F) Comet aircraft failures ( Ref 10 ) 1950s Fatigue crack initiation in pressurized skins due to high gross stresses and stress concentration effects from geometric features Development of the fatigue “safe-life” approach Evaluation of the effects of geometry and notches on fatigue behavior...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0048134
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... on springs during rotary straightening. The indentation and the other marks were, in effect, notches and would have some detrimental effect on fatigue life because of the reduced cross-sectional area in those zones. Microscopic examination of the fracture surface ( Fig. 1d ) revealed two areas...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006802
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... ( Ref 10 ) 1950s Fatigue crack initiation in pressurized skins due to high gross stresses and stress-concentration effects from geometric features Development of the fatigue “safe-life” approach Evaluation of the effects of geometry and notches on fatigue behavior Evaluation of the effects...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001028
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... section of the endcap through the center of the failed spot weld. Downward permanent deflection of the endcap outer skin on both sides of the bracket is evident. Dimensions given in inches. Dimensional measurements obtained during disassembly also revealed two factors. First, the gap between...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c0089676
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
... changes that occur at the surface during heating may produce a magnetic skin. Further examination of the magnetic properties of the link was performed with the aid of a Tinsley thickness gage, which is normally used for measuring the thickness of nonmagnetic coatings on ferritic steel surfaces...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001729
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... from the crash, we noted the normal shear type of separation on most of them. However, a few pieces, particularly those of the aluminum skin near the toilet bowl and pieces of the toilet bowl (type 321 stainless), showed some “reversing shear” ( Fig. 2 ). Also, a small fragment of aluminum removed from...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003508
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... However, many of the common causes of failures of castings occur from one or more aspects of design, materials selection, casting imperfections, faulty processing, improper assembly, or service conditions not initially anticipated. Some casting imperfections have no effect on the function or the service...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006831
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
...-shrinkage, shrinkage porosity, leaders Discontinuities C 100 Discontinuities, generally at intersections, caused by mechanical effects (rupture) C 100 Normal cracking C 111 (a) Normal fracture appearance, sometimes with adjacent indentation marks Breakage (cold) C 120...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001553
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... was a manufacturing deficiency. The usual way to eliminate decarburization is to machine off the soft skin or employ better quality control when making them. Many aircraft manufacturers employ forged parts with machined surfaces or with shot-peened as-forged surfaces without excessive decarburization...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001328
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
..., or reduction gas). The heart of the steam reforming process is the primary reformer furnace. The design consists of two parallel cells, each fired on both side walls and containing two staggered rows of vertical tubes. In the radiant section, tube skin temperature of about 850 °C (1562 °F) is maintained...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001724
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... satisfactory values of elongation and reduction in area were obtained in the tests on the exciter end bell from No. 2 machine (No. 2-E) which also failed in service.” Serious variability in the effect of the strengthening by cold work is evident from the ductility figures and from the fact that many...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001021
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
.... The spar specification indicated that the material was to be heat treated to the T6 condition. Fig. 1 Lower surface of a main spar from the starboard wing of a Mirage III-0. The row of fastener holes along the flange is used to attach the wing skin. After the crack was discovered, examination...