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size distortion

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0092148
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... retained austenite in the failed cylinder to transform to martensite. The increase in volume resulted in sufficient size distortion to cause interference between the cylinder and the spool, seizing, and loss of flow control. The failed parts had been carburized in a process in which the carbon potential...
Image
Published: 01 January 2002
that transformed to martensite in service, resulting in size distortion (growth). 500× More
Image
Published: 01 June 2019
to martensite in service, resulting in size distortion (growth). 500× More
Image
Published: 15 January 2021
that transformed to martensite in service, resulting in size distortion (growth). Original magnification: 500× More
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003510
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract This article provides an overview of the effects of various material- and process-related parameters on residual stress, distortion control, cracking, and microstructure/property relationships as they relate to various types of failure. It discusses phase transformations that occur...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003573
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... to carry, is incapable of performing its intended function, or interferes with the operation of another component. Distortion failures can be plastic or elastic and may or may not be accompanied by fracture. There are two main types of distortion: size distortion, which refers to a change in volume (growth...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006797
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... can be plastic or elastic and may or may not be accompanied by fracture. There are two main types of distortion: size distortion, which refers to a change in volume (growth or shrinkage), and shape distortion (bending or warping), which refers to a change in geometric form. Most of the examples...
Image
Published: 15 January 2021
Fig. 17 Schematic of the effect of geometric relationships on image formation with point sources and a radiation source of finite size. (a) Image enlargement, (b) image distortion, and (c) image overlap for point sources of radiation. (d) Degree of image unsharpness from a radiation source More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001811
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... to be homogenous and had no banded structure. However, x-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the presence of up to 6% retained austenite which likely caused the tube to buckle during the 910 °C heat treating procedure. tube buckling retained austenite bainitic steel distortion x-ray diffraction analysis...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... between austenitic grain size and quench cracking Quench sensitivity Cracking and distortion increase as carbon equivalent (C eq ) is increased. Alloy is crack sensitive if C eq > 0.52, where: C eq = C + Mn 5 + Mo 5 + Cr 10 + Ni 10...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001581
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... Abstract A heavily worked 304 stainless steel wire basket recrystallized and distorted while in service at 650 deg C (1200 deg F). This case study demonstrates that heavily cold worked austenitic stainless steel components can experience large losses in creep strength, and potentially...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0090277
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... included FEA (thermal gradients, nonlinear material behavior, residual stress, changes in wall thickness during the formation of U-bends, and TSP distortions near the ruptured tube) of three-dimensional solid models of the U-tubes. The conclusion was that distortion of the TSPs and resulting “pinching...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003526
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... and then connect them correctly to form the elements—a time-consuming task. These models then had to be solved, and the limiting size of models was the memory and computing speed of the computers available. Because computing power has been (and still is) the limiting factor in the generic use of FEA, models...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006773
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... areas that used to be regarded as “unchartered.” For example, the use of extended finite-element modeling has enabled FEA users to apply both elastic and elastic-plastic fracture mechanics, involving evaluations of stress intensity at the crack tip and critical crack-size assessment. Although still...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006935
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... processes on plastic parts and the material properties is presented. The article presents process effects on molecular orientation. It also illustrates the thinking that goes into the selection of processes for size, shape, and design factors. Finally, the article describes how various processes handle...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001104
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... the furnace at approximately 1 m/min (3 ft/min). The total length of the belt was 94 m (308 ft), with 23 m (75 ft) operating in the heating zone of the furnace. Circumstances Leading to Failure The sinter belt distorted in shape and stretched approximately 1.2 m (4 ft) over a period of 6 months. Normal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006764
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... (¼ in.) below surface under good conditions Iron and steel, nickel, cobalt Ultrasonic testing (UT) High-frequency vibrations are introduced into sample. Waves are reflected or scattered by discontinuities. In many cases, UT may be used to detect, size, and image flaws. Cracks, laps, thickness/wall...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006804
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... distortions stemmed from the blast and what is attributed to fire and heat damage. Figure 1 shows an engineer evaluating a postincident event that involved an explosion and a fire. This article addresses the effects of damage to equipment due to explosions (blast), fire, and heat as well...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.9781627082952
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003521
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... overload Brittle overload Fatigue Corrosion Wear Creep Visual, 1 to 50× (fracture surface) Necking or distortion in direction consistent with applied loads Dull, fibrous fracture Shear lips Little or no distortion Flat fracture Bright or coarse texture, crystalline, grainy...