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single stress pulse

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001295
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... High-tensile, high-carbon steel wire was used to tow targets behind aircraft. Indicated airspeeds of up to 740 km/h (460 mph) and altitudes of up to 10,000 m (32,800 ft) were encountered. The wire (drawn 0.8 wt% C pearlitic steel) was single strand, 1.3 mm (0.05 in.) in diameter, with a breaking...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003509
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... From these two items it may be deduced how the fracture began and how it propagated; whether it was generated by a single overload or by repetitive stresses; whether the loading was in tension, torsion, bending, shear, or some combination; whether or not environmental effects or corrosion played a role...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006758
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... “steer” the beam by pulsing a large number of adjacent transducers on a single PAUT probe. This method is also able to direct the beam around angles and corners such as T and L joints, where it is difficult to obtain UT information with single element UT probes. The angle beam UT techniques can also...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003542
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... observations is to locate and identify the fracture origin. The term “fracture origin” denotes both the location where fracture began and the discontinuity (crack, pore, large grain, machining damage, etc.) that concentrated the stress at that location. As a general rule, low-magnification observation is most...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006770
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... through a “window” that separates the detector from the vacuum chamber of the SEM, penetrate the lithium-infused single-crystal silicon chip, and are absorbed. The major result of this conversion of energy is in the production of electron/hole pairs within the silicon. The interaction can also result...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003515
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... following ASTM ( Ref 1 ), definitions used are: The development of nondestructive testing and evaluation techniques has occurred primarily in the last 100 years ( Ref 2 , 3 ), with progress often being driven by technological developments in other fields. For example, the development of pulsed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006764
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... and composites Liquid penetrant Liquid penetrant fluid preferentially collects in crevices and attracts dyes that accentuate flaw visibility. Locating fabrication discontinuities, stress cracks Will not find subsurface discontinuities Ease of application. Improvement over simple visual inspection Most...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001594
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... Utilities Electric Company (TU Electric) has implemented in response to these failures. High-cycle fatigue is invisible to proven commercial nondestructive evaluation (NDE) methods during crack initiation and the initial phases of crack growth. Under a constant applied stress, cracks grow at accelerating...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006943
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... filaments. Both types of the hexaboride-type emitters require better vacuum than tungsten filament. The field-emission types used in SEM instruments are the Schottky emitter and cold-cathode emitter, both manufactured with a sharp tip. The Schottky emitter is made of a tungsten single crystal (100) coated...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006768
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Abstract X-ray diffraction (XRD) residual-stress analysis is an essential tool for failure analysis. This article focuses primarily on what the analyst should know about applying XRD residual-stress measurement techniques to failure analysis. Discussions are extended to the description of ways...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c9001578
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
... stress and other considerations, to operate in the range of blade speeds where vibration problems can occur while the rotors get thermally stabilized. The speed on the turbine is continually varied during the thermal soak period, and this continual variation prevents damage to the turbine blades...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c9001617
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
..., in locations where previous couplings had failed, by instrumenting couplings and adjacent pipes with strain gages and accelerometers. Measurements were made during normal operation of the hydraulic systems over several days, but no significant cyclic stresses were recorded, except for occasional pulses...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003524
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... mechanics fracture modes fracture surface lubricants macroscopic examination mechanical testing microscopic examination nondestructive inspection sampling simulated-service testing stress analysis wear failure ANALYZING the inevitable failures that occur during testing, manufacturing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006822
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
.... The operating pressure of a pipeline is often expressed as a percentage of the material yield strength, by converting the pressure to a stress and dividing by the material SMYS. For example, an operator of an interstate gas pipeline through unpopulated (or sparsely populated) areas may choose to operate at 72...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.9781627083959
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006793
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... with the impacting materials and the conditions of stress and sliding speed at the contact. In some cases, there is strong evidence of crack and void formation in subsurface regions ( Ref 8 ), while in others, no cracks are visible ( Ref 9 ). In other specimens, varying degrees of crack formation in the white layer...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006811
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... inspection of the pertinent fracture-surface features and overall geometry to identify crack origin location(s) and other potential failure mechanisms. In the event that a device is not available for inspection, a single overload event (i.e., trauma) as a cause of fracture can almost always be ruled out...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006931
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... temperature under load, Vicat temperature Mechanical spectroscopy Viscosity, normal stress difference, shear elastic and loss modulus Rheological properties, flow behavior, melt or solution elasticity, yield stress Infrared (IR) spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) Chemical...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003565
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... with the impacting materials and the conditions of stress and sliding speed at the contact. In some cases, there is strong evidence of crack and void formation in subsurface regions ( Ref 5 ), while in others, no cracks are visible ( Ref 6 ). In other specimens, varying degrees of crack formation in the white layer...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001818
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract This article discusses the effect of using unsuitable alloys, metallurgical discontinuities, fabrication practices, and stress raisers on the failure of a pressure vessel. It provides information on pressure vessels made of composite materials and their welding practices. The article...