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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001629
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
...EDS Results of Processing Fluids Table 1 EDS Results of Processing Fluids Element Cutting Fluid Relative Weight Percent Rinse Water Residue Coolant 1 Coolant 2 Detergent Iron … … … … 0.5 Silicon … … … … 1.3 Aluminum … … 0.1 … … Sodium … … 0.6 0.9...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c9001625
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
... in the form of processing fluids and/or cleaning agents, were left on the surface just prior to painting and resulted in the observed fisheye blemishes. One of the components also showed evidence of mechanical damage, in addition to detectable iron, which suggests that the part surface may have been damaged...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of steels). The two primary objectives are to minimize heat losses and to prevent various fluids and solids from coming in direct contact with the outer skin (again, most of the time, made of steels). Unlike thin organic linings and coatings, refractory linings may consist of one or many times two...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0090460
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... of the part that had been in contact with the fluid passing through the component. Several of the crack surfaces were further examined using SEM. The fracture surface exhibited a coarse morphology, as illustrated in Fig. 1 . The reinforcing glass fibers protruded unbounded from the surrounding polymeric...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c0048808
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
...Abstract Abstract The welds joining the liner and shell of a fluid catalytic cracking unit failed. The shell was made of ASTM A515 carbon steel welded with E7018 filler metal. The liner was made of type 405 stainless steel and was plug welded to the shell using ER309 and ER310 stainless steel...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... become essentially inert and function as though they were noble metals such as platinum and gold. Fortunately, from an engineering standpoint, the metals most susceptible to this type of behavior are the common engineering and structural materials, including iron, nickel, silicon, chromium, titanium...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001276
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... surface of the pipes. Suspended particles in the water or cavitation may also have aggravated the erosion, as evidenced by the jagged edge of the weld band. However, the exact cause of the erosion could not be determined by the appearance of the piping. Erosion damage most likely occurs when fluid...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001779
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... in the fluid. It, commonly, is made by the production and the collapse of vapor bubbles producing microjets of high kinetic energy, which is common in hydraulic machinery such as pumps, turbines, and propellers. The pressure waves are released by the collapse of vapor structures which interact with solid...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001809
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract This article discusses the classification of sliding bearings and describes the major groups of soft metal bearing materials: babbitts, copper-lead bearing alloys, bronze, and aluminum alloys. It provides a discussion on the methods for fluid-film lubrication in bearings. The article...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c9001634
EISBN: 978-1-62708-221-1
...Abstract Abstract The boom lift equalizer hose on an excavator failed and the resultant release of high-pressure hydraulic fluid damaged the operator cabin. The hose was a heavy duty, high-impulse, multiple-spiral wire-reinforced, rubber covered hydraulic hose equivalent to 100R13...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003553
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Composition, % Carbon 0.3 Manganese 1.1 Silicon 0.6 Chromium 19 Nickel 9 Molybdenum 1.25 Tungsten 1.2 Niobium 0.4 Titanium 0.3 Iron Bal The operating temperature of the duct surrounded by the clamp was 425 to 540 °C (800 to 1000 °F). The life of the clamp...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001760
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... in the center (between cylinder numbers 2 and 3) that was used for support during the casting process. After 434 engine working hours, the test was stopped because of the coolant fluid entering the combustion chamber. This event was repeated in another endurance test (400 h thermal change cycle) after 125...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003549
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... essentially inert and act as if they were noble metals such as platinum and gold. Fortunately, from an engineering standpoint, the metals most susceptible to this kind of behavior are the common engineering and structural materials, including iron, nickel, silicon, chromium, titanium, and alloys containing...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c9001617
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... cause of failure was probably the unanticipated presence of high-frequency stress cycles with very low amplitudes, possibly due to vibration, resonance, or acoustic waves transmitted through the hydraulic fluid. Secondary causes of failure included the presence of high tensile residual stresses in one...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003569
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... propellers, valves, heat-exchanger tubes, and other hydraulic structures in contact with high-velocity liquids subjected to pressure changes. This type of wear also has been observed in mechanical devices such as plain bearings, seals, and orifices in which fluid goes through severe restrictions. Cavitation...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c9001635
EISBN: 978-1-62708-221-1
.... A cross section of one of these areas is shown in Fig. 2 . This can cause cracks in the inner hose, creating leaks; allow water ingress to the wires; and alter the flow of hydraulic fluid and the pressure of the oil within the hose. Fig. 2 A cross section of one of the crushed areas of the failed...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... (3000 °F). By the time the flue gas has left the furnace, it has been cooled to 925 to 1095 °C (1700 to 2000 °F), and convection is the predominant mode of heat transfer. Second, conduction through the steel boiler tubes transfers heat to the internal fluid. Although conduction is important, boiler...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003568
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... is the progressive loss of original material from a solid surface due to mechanical interaction between that surface and a fluid, a multicomponent fluid, an impinging liquid, or impinging solid particles ( Ref 1 ). Erosion is a rather broad term and can be further classified into a number of more specific terms...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006795
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Abstract Erosion is the progressive loss of original material from a solid surface due to mechanical interaction between that surface and a fluid, a multicomponent fluid, an impinging liquid, or impinging solid particles. The detrimental effects of erosion have caused problems in a number...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001817
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... combustion gases, steam, or water to gases, vapors, or liquids of various types. Heat exchangers are of tube, plate, or sheet construction. Tubular heat exchangers are generally used for large fluid systems, whereas heat exchangers of plate or sheet construction are often preferred for smaller fluid streams...