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silicon oxides

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0047125
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
.... The stringerlike area was analyzed by electron microprobe. The results of the analysis showed that the area contained relatively large amounts of manganese oxide, iron oxide, and titanium oxide; medium amounts of copper oxide and aluminum oxide; and traces of chromium oxide, silicon oxide, and magnesium oxide...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001623
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... Abstract Several glass wool insulation sections from a heat-treat furnace showed visible, but only cosmetic discoloration. EDS showed the presence of silicon, aluminum, and oxygen in the nondiscolored region, and these elements are consistent with glass wool. Relatively high levels of chromium...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001333
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... °C (690 to 700 °F). The tubes were reportedly manufactured from Werkstoff St35.8 II steel. Each reactor tube was filled with hollow silicon carbide cylinders (catalyst carriers) coated with a mixture of 96% titanium oxide and 4% vanadium pentoxide. The tube temperature reportedly varied from 300...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c0046995
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... included replacing the material with an alloy, such as RA 333, with a higher chromium content and with an additional element, like silicon, resistant to carburization-oxidation. Carburizing Heat treating furnaces Tubes Hastelloy X UNS N06002 RA 333 UNS N06333 High-temperature corrosion...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., usually under reducing conditions. Many different types of silicon carbide refractories are available. They have the following advantages over oxide refractories: high thermal conductivity, superior spalling resistance, superior abrasion resistance (and, hence, high corrosion resistance against...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001628
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... levels of additives. The used oil showed some evidence of oxidation, which is indicative of slight degradation. The cylinder deposit was found to contain mineral oil, and also showed results that were suggestive of low levels of silicone. These findings indicate that the deposit contained relatively high...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001626
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... of aluminum, silicon, sulfur, chlorine, calcium, manganese, and nickel. The iron, chromium, and nickel are likely in the form of dissolution products from the pickling solution. Some carbon and oxygen were also detected in the substance, which are suggestive of organic materials and oxidation products...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006771
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... characterization. Typical applications include identification of thin layers of contaminants on surfaces or at interfaces, evaluation of cleaning processes, corrosion studies, adhesion failures, and the identification of stains, oxides, and discolorations. Successful failure analysis can often be a matter...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c0048728
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
..., sulfur, silicon, tin, and manganese. The dark brown and black deposits covering the surfaces of the tubes were identified as copper (II) oxide. Also present were reddish deposits identified as copper (I) oxide, as well as iron oxides. The green color of some deposits indicated that the chlorine...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001225
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... was susceptible to s-phase formation when annealed under 800 deg C. The material selected was therefore unsuitable for the stress to be anticipated. In view of the required oxidation resistance, a chromium-silicon or chromium-aluminum steel with 6 or 13% Cr would have been adequate. If the high temperature...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001845
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... oxide flakes plastic blunting fractographic analysis bolt torque CuNiSi (nickel-silicon bronze alloy) UNS C64700 Introduction Nickel-silicon bronze alloys which offer good strength and conductivity [ 1 ] are widely utilized in electrification fields. Most such alloys are usually...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.pulp.c0045911
EISBN: 978-1-62708-230-3
... (790 deg F). Metallographic sections, energy-dispersive x-ray spectra, chemical analyses, tensile tests, and Auger microscope analyses showed the failed bellows met the specifications for the material. However, investigation also showed entire oxide thickness was contaminated with relatively large...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0091703
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... identified using powder x-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. The internal deposits consisted of silicon oxide (SiO 2 ), potassium aluminum silicate (KAlSiO 4 ), calcium carbonate (CaCO 3 ), and ammonium copper sulfite hydrate [(NH 4 ) 7 Cu(SO 2 ) 4 · 5H 2 O]. In addition to the elements contained...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001129
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... was that the material was specified as cast steel with a maximum hardness of 179 HB. Design and actual loading conditions, as well as blueprints, were unavailable. Visual Examination of General Physical Features A heavy layer of oxide had accumulated on the fracture surface while the bolster was in storage...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001328
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... showed a secondary phase in the cover pass rich in nickel, niobium, and silicon. This phase varied in terms of the relative niobium content. Niobium is also an effective carbide stabilizer. Corrosion Deposits Grain boundary oxidation products were identified through EDS as consisting mostly...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001629
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... potassium, phosphorus, carbon, and oxygen, along with small amounts of sodium, magnesium, sulfur, and chlorine. The residue that was left after drying the rinse water was iron, silicon, sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium, copper, sulfur, phosphorus, chlorine, carbon, and oxygen. The EDS results...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001357
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... used was not adequate to guarantee the operating life of the blades due to excess sulfur trioxide, carbon, and sodium in the combustion gases, which caused pitting. A molten salt environmental cracking mechanism was also a factor and was enhanced by the working stresses and by the presence of silicon...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001658
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
...- 1 4 Cr 1 2 Mo and 2- 1 4 Cr 1 2 Mo steels and an austenitic stainless steel, respectively. Similarly, in addition to iron oxides between the metal particles, particles of alumina (Al 2 O 3 ) were identified by x-ray diffraction and the presence of silicon...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0048299
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... was revealed by EDS analysis of the debris to be iron with traces of phosphorus, manganese, sodium, calcium, copper, zinc, potassium, silicon, chromium, and molybdenum. Thus the debris was interpreted to be the scale from ID of the tube with boiler feedwater chemicals from the attemperation spray. The likely...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001316
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... 3. 27.9× The inside surfaces were studied further using energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) to identify the elements associated with the oxidized inner surfaces that may have caused corrosion. For all three separators, the following elements were detected in decreasing order of content: iron...