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silicate glass

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... dissolves in the molten glass and reprecipitates as one or more compositionally modified crystalline phases. CMAS, calcium-magnesium-alumino-silicate. Reprinted with permission from Cambridge University Press Fig. 27 Concentration of predominant oxides of calcium-magnesium-alumino-silicates (CMAS...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c9001599
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
... (approximately 45 × 45 × 45 cm) were refractory lined with alumina zirconia silicate and high chrome K3 brick. Four Inconel 690 sheathed molybdenum electrodes, one on each wall, were installed below the molten glass level to provide Joule heating. Temperatures in excess of 1300 °C were not uncommon...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003542
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... in this section. The markings are shown and discussed using glass examples first. The reason is that typical silicate glasses are homogeneous and do not have the complications introduced by the microstructure of polycrystalline ceramics (grains, grain boundaries, second phases, pores, etc.). Therefore, it is much...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... and by low-viscosity liquid. Silicates, particularly silicate glasses, are usually viscous; simple oxidic compounds and basic slags are less viscous. Halides and elemental molten metals are, in general, the most fluid liquids. Penetration is the result of an interplay between capillary forces (surface...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001323
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... was further aggravated by the presence of silicon and sulfur (silicates and sulfates). It was recommended that the tubes be replaced with Inconel 600 or 601, as a practical option until the carryover problem could be solved. Alkalies, environment Boiler tubes Environmental effects Inconel 600, 601...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003564
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... by the Hertz theory of elastic contact. Traditionally, Hertzian cone cracks have been most widely studied in flat, silicate glass plate, using spheres of hard steel or tungsten carbide. Extension to ceramics is becoming more prevalent, and the theory of Hertzian fracture has been significantly developed during...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001059
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... to 600 grit) are used. The metal is finely polished with diamond paste down to a 0.25 µm (9.8 µin.) finish. When a scratch-free finish is attained, the material is etched electrolytically with 10% oxalic acid, and replicas of the surface are taken on 0.13 min (5 mil) acetate tape and transferred to glass...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001143
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
.... This can be considered on three scales: macroscopic, microscopic, and electron fractographic [ 12 ]. Combining observations made with the naked eye and with the help of a magnifying glass the macroscopic examination has two main thrusts. As an initial examination it serves to define items for further...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003541
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Fig. 6 A 1000 h creep modulus of several polymers as a function of temperature. PBT, polybutylene terephthalate; PC, polycarbonate; PPO, polyphenylene oxide; PVC, polyvinyl chloride; PP, polypropylene; HDPE, high-density polyethylene; T g , glass transition temperature Fig. 7 Isochronous...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003560
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... was measured at 1589 HV. The PCBs are composite materials, with layers of fiberglass epoxy resin sandwiched between copper layers. A PCB contains as many as 14 layers of copper and fiberglass-resin layers. The glass fibers in the fiberglass have a hardness of 500 HV, while the copper has a hardness of 40 HV...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006790
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... these circumstances, ferrous alloys containing hard carbides have good to excellent wear resistance. Ceramics and synthetic stone (e.g., fused silicates) are also used for these applications. Molded rubbers and polyurethanes can also work well in low-stress abrasive conditions, particularly in pump and flotation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., glass, and so on. The method can also identify and quantify defects and imperfections, inclusions, and anomalies in a sample. In corrosion debris samples, the quantitative analysis of carbon, oxygen, and other elements sometimes provides important information about the corrosion process. X-ray...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003524
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... be missed if the observer is not vigilant. Inspection of the topographic features of the failed component should start with an unaided visual examination and proceed to higher and higher magnification. A magnifying glass followed by a low-power microscope is an invaluable aid in detection of small details...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003509
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003548
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... themselves become embrittled in galvanic couples. Tantalum repair patches in glass-lined vessels have been destroyed by contact with cooling coils or agitators made of less noble alloys. Tantalum is susceptible to attack by alkalis, such as may form in the vicinity of a cathode in neutral solutions. Noble...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006783
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... themselves become embrittled in galvanic couples. Tantalum repair patches in glass-lined vessels have been destroyed by contact with cooling coils or agitators made of less noble alloys. Tantalum is susceptible to attack by alkalis, such as may form in the vicinity of a cathode in neutral solutions. Noble...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003553
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006779
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... by naked eye or magnifying glass or by use of an optical stereomicroscope at low magnification (up to 50×). Macroscopic examination of fracture surfaces involves relatively simple techniques. It can often be done at the failure site, requires little or no preparation of the specimen, requires minimal...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003508
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1