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silicate and oxide inclusions

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001645
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... confirmed that the brittle oxides that formed stringers were alumina, and the other macroinclusions were complex silicates. Both the alumina and silicate inclusions were deleterious to contact-fatigue properties. Microstructurally, the carburized regions of the broken roller and of inner-race samples...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001489
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
...) dark field images of an inclusion. EDS spectra of the chemical composition obtained from (c) an inclusion and (d) the matrix. The results of EDS in an STEM and gas chromatography quite conclusively showed that the inclusions were oxides, silicates, or aluminates. The information collected from...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.rail.c9001607
EISBN: 978-1-62708-231-0
... inclusions near the surface of individual wire strands in the rope. The inclusions were identified as Al-Ca-Ti silicates in a large number of stringers, and some oxide and nitride inclusions were also found. The wire used in the rope did not conform to the composition specified for AISI 316 grade steel, nor...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001835
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... fasteners fracture stress concentration metallographic analysis silicate and oxide inclusions stress analysis low-temperature fracture toughness Fe-0.34C-0.7Mn-0.34Cr (chromium alloy steel) Introduction Stress Analysis Chemical Composition Mechanical Characterization Metallographic...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c9001591
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... but unetched RMS Titanic steel specimen revealed the non-metallic inclusions. Figure 4 shows a typical worst field view (ASTM E 45) of inclusions at 500times;, for the transverse plane. The dark gray inclusions are silicates, whereas the light gray inclusions are sulfides. The elongated and rounded particles...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0047315
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
...-etched specimen taken from the flange ( Fig. 1b ) revealed a matrix of coarse pearlite. Graphite flakes were distributed and oriented randomly, but were undesirably large. Several types of inclusions were observed, including sulfides, oxides, phosphides, and silicates. A large inclusion, believed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0047118
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... in the longitudinal (working) direction. The inclusions were crumbled (fragmented) during forging, but were not deformed. The particles consisted primarily of aluminum oxide or silicates rich in aluminum oxide. Inclusions of this type could not be found in the interior of the cross section; only oxide and sulfide...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001120
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... A, plate III. The microcleanliness ratings were as follows: Type A inclusions (sulfides) None detected Type B inclusions (alumina) None detected Type C inclusions (silicates) None detected Type D inclusions (globular oxides) Fields: 1 heavy: 1 1 2 thin Figure 3...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001615
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... showing the lateral crack The first stage forgings and undeformed shank/raw bar stock were cleaned properly and prepared for macrostructure examination. The macrostructure of the first stage forging contained numerous oxide (globular) and sulfide (elongated) inclusions in the central portion ( Fig...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001206
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... precipitates in the ferritic zones around the cracks ( Fig. 7 ) are vitreous silicates, based on their behavior in polarized light. This form of selective oxidation is favored by the scarcity of oxygen in narrow cracks. In the extensions of the cracks, ferritic bands are often recognizable (see Fig. 5...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001323
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... was further aggravated by the presence of silicon and sulfur (silicates and sulfates). It was recommended that the tubes be replaced with Inconel 600 or 601, as a practical option until the carryover problem could be solved. Alkalies, environment Boiler tubes Environmental effects Inconel 600, 601...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001819
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... to the causes of failure, which probably can be attributed to external factors. Figure 5 shows an unetched aspect of the longitudinal section of the austenitic stainless steel pump axis. Many nonmetallic inclusion particles (sulfide, oxide, and silicate particles) can be seen. The microstructure...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... oxidation rate versus temperature. LTHC, low-temperature hot corrosion; HTHC, high-temperature hot corrosion. Courtesy of U.S. Navy Fig. 26 Schematic of cross section of a thermal barrier coating (TBC). Calcium-magnesium-alumino-silicate (CMAS) deposits on the TBC surface, which upon melting...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003507
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... defect that also appears as a linear discontinuity. They occur from a crack, a heavy cluster of nonmetallic inclusions, or a deep lap (a lap that intersects the surface at a large angle). A seam can also result from a defect in the ingot surface, such as a hole, that becomes oxidized and is prevented...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001601
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... for these pressure vessels. The development work described in this paper used SAE 4130 steel that was not electroslag remelted. The inclusion ratings of this grade of steel, based on ASTM E 45, are as follows: Sulfides Alumina Silicates Globular oxides Thin Thick Thin Thick Thin Thick Thin...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006835
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... hydrogen introduced during steelmaking. Excessive gas contents in ingots are most serious when oxide inclusions are present. Inclusions provide sites for the agglomeration of gas; thus, molten alloys are often treated to reduce the hydrogen content and alkali element concentration as well as to remove...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001028
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... was at a small area of overload fracture through regions of shrinkage and inclusions at the root of the weld, and showed that the tank had been abused. The fracture surface produced during the mode III propagation of the crack was quite different from typical mode I fatigue features. Examples of mode III...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006765
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... Also, inclusions and other hard precipitates are more visible in unetched than in etched specimens. After careful examination of the as-polished specimen, the sample should be etched and the examination procedure repeated. It is certainly not uncommon in failure analysis to encounter large...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003509
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... include: Underbead cracks Gas porosity Inclusions—slag, oxides, or tungsten metal Incomplete fusion Inadequate penetration Solidification cracks, liquation cracks Failure to meet strength, ductility, or toughness requirements is another cause for rejection of weldments. Details...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006826
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... for sulfide, alumina, and silicate inclusions ( Ref 19 ). Hard inclusions in the workpiece material can abrade the cutting tool material ( Ref 20 ). Inclusions, porosity, and oxide films in powder metallurgy steels can reduce their machinability, but closing the pores, increased cleanliness, and sulfide...