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shrinkage pits and voids

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001779
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... were the dominant failure mechanisms and that the materials and processes used to make the pumps were largely unsuited for the application. pump casing cavitation wear erosion steel shrinkage pits and voids scanning electron microscopy cavitation resistance C30 (low-carbon steel alloy...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006760
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... categories of imperfections and have developed charts and standards for classification and acceptability. Some examples are ISO 6157, BPS-F-69, SAE 123, NAS 496, and ASTM F 788. Gas Porosity Shrinkage Porosity or Cavity Alloy Segregation High-Density Inclusion Voids Caused by Hydrogen Folds...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001365
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
.... The chlorine (chloride) increases the pitting potential within the pre-existing shrinkage cavities. The copper and nickel are possible indicators of corrosion in water circuit heat exchangers. Fig. 10 Typical results of in situ EDS analyses at the base of shrinkage voids in the impeller Hardness...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001083
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
...Abstract Abstract Copper alloy (C83600) impellers from two different feed pumps that supplied water to a 2-year-old boiler failed repeatedly. Examination by various methods indicated that the failures were caused by sulfide attack that concentrated in shrinkage voids in the castings. Two...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001598
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... evidence of pitting attack. Fig. 7 Composite photomicrograph showing microstructure of the conical section from the CIM. Note significant grain growth and the lack of voids throughout the cross section. Molten glass attack is visible on ID surface, but no wall thinning occurred. Both...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003508
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... in the form of cracks, appearing on the faces or along edges, generally only after machining Dispersed shrinkage B 200: Cavities with generally rough walls, shrinkage B 210: Open cavity of Class B 200, sometimes penetrating deeply into the casting B 211 (a) Open, funnel-shaped cavity...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003507
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... The article discusses the types of imperfections that can be traced to the original ingot product. These include chemical segregation; ingot pipe, porosity, and centerline shrinkage; high hydrogen content; nonmetallic inclusions; unmelted electrodes and shelf; and cracks, laminations, seams, pits, blisters...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001712
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... carbides-moderately dissolved Body: 1D I.D. oxidation up to 3 mm, stemming from shrinkage porosity heavily spherodized, grey, primary carbonitrides O.D. surface decarburization with oxidation - 1 mm thick non-aligned creep voids throughout 1C similar to above...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.9781627083294
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006835
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... that act as stress raisers, which may adversely affect the performance of the component in service. Subsurface and core discontinuities may also occur. Subsurface flaws often (but not always) originate from the as-cast ingot due to shrinkage, voids, and porosity that form during solidification. Figure...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006765
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... or be shallow enough to be removed by the etchant. Coarse grinding scratches must be removed; even very fine polishing scratches may not be tolerable in examining failed parts. Pullout, pitting, cracking of hard particles, smear, and other preparation artifacts must be avoided. Relief (i.e., excessive...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001396
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... and corrosion will develop. In addition to being present as a surface film, magnetite in a soft powdery form is frequently found in boiler tubes as a corrosion product of iron and as such is often present in the pits and scabs which arise from normal corrosion, differential aeration corrosion, or deposit attack...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003532
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... revealed numerous voids typical of shrinkage cavities. Light microscope examination ( Fig. 24c ) also reveals these cavities. Neither SEM or LM examination by itself was satisfactory for determining why the fracture was unusual, but together they provide a more complete picture. The shrinkage cavities...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006831
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... by Microporosity Investigation Shrinkage Porosity Conclusion Gas Porosity Misruns, Cold Shots, Scabs, Buckles, Pulldowns, Pits, and Sand Holes Gray Iron Surface Discontinuities Mechanical (Cold) Cracks Surface Finish and Dimensional Tolerances Mold Coatings Conclusions...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006775
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... nucleation and propagation. In cast alloys, the presence of both microscale interdendritic porosity and macroscale shrinkage cavities provide “holes” for crack nucleation. There is little difference in void growth from shrinkage porosity and a hole containing an unbonded inclusion. The incipient crack...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003538
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... and macroscale shrinkage cavities provide “holes” for crack nucleation. There is little difference in void growth from shrinkage porosity and a hole containing an unbonded inclusion. The incipient crack can form in four ways: Hole formation around an often weakly bonded particle Cracking...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c9001657
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
.... The vane had developed a well defined crack in the airfoil section, Figure 2 . The airfoil had also suffered a considerable amount of erosion along the leading edge area and general pitting of the concave surface. At the time of the vane removal, the engine (no. 2) had logged 5500 h of running time...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006825
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... spheroidized carbide. (c) Grain-boundary carbides. (d) Creep voids. Original magnification: 200× Fig. 23 Inner surface of rifled tube showing scattered pitting damage Fig. 25 Tube microstructure of banded ferrite and pearlite with pits on the inner surface. Original magnification: 400...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003509
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... or in the base metal by either hot or cold cracking. Hot cracking occurs during cooling near the solidus temperature and is characterized by interdendritic or intergranular cracking as the result of hot shortness or localized planar shrinkage. Cold cracking is due to transgranular separations produced...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001818
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... joint between the clapper and a 20-mm ( 3 4 -in.) diam support rod, which was also made of ASTM A36 structural steel. Examination revealed voids on the fracture surface and evidence of incomplete weld penetration. The overall appearance of the fracture surface indicated brittle fracture...