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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c0046911
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... along elongated ferrite bands, possibly because silicon was dissolved in the ferrite and thus made it more susceptible to attack by the molten zinc. Recommendations included rewelding the vat using the manual shielded metal arc process with at least four passes on each side. Hot dip galvanizing...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0091362
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
.... The increase in the weld nitrogen level was a direct result of inadequate argon gas shielding of the molten weld puddle. Two areas of inadequate shielding were identified: improper gas flow rate for a 19 mm (0.75 in.) diam gas lens nozzle, and contamination of the manifold gas system. Recommendations included...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0048154
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... Abstract A medium-carbon helical spring was installed in a machine assembly that was welded into its final location. Weld spatter was not prevented from landing on the wire surface by any shield. An elongated drop and two tiny droplets of metal were observed a short distance from the fracture...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003509
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... at the weld toe Cracks—hot or cold, longitudinal or transverse, crater and at weld toe Gas porosity Arc strike Spatter Backing piece left on: failure to remove material placed at the root of a weld joint to support molten weld metal Subsurface features that are causes for rejection...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001647
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... of porosity Poor shield gas coverage Surface discoloration from oxidation Random distribution of porosity Impurities in base metal Chemistry analysis does not meet specification. Random distribution of porosity Moisture in shield gas Gas analysis does not meet specification. Random...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001049
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... temperatures during cooling after the weld metal has been deposited and has started to solidify from the molten state. Because it is generally associated with grain-boundary liquation and/or brittle grain-boundary phases (such as the niobium carbides), hot cracking generally appears as interdendritic fissures...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c9001591
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... was cut to the desired lengths. During the casting, care was taken to shield the molten steel from contact with the atmosphere. A tundish located directly above the continuous casting mold trapped inclusions and slag that floated in the molten stream of steel. The slabs were heated to the desired rolling...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003555
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... and metal dusting, sulfidation, hot corrosion, chloridation, hydrogen interactions, molten metals, molten salts, and aging reactions including sensitization, stress-corrosion cracking, and corrosion fatigue. It concludes with a discussion on various protective coatings, such as aluminide coatings, overlay...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... oxidation, carburization, metal dusting, nitridation, carbonitridation, sulfidation, and chloridation. Several other potential degradation processes, namely hot corrosion, hydrogen interactions, molten salts, aging, molten sand, erosion-corrosion, and environmental cracking, are discussed under boiler tube...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003552
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of hydrides varies with alloy composition and is reduced substantially by alloying with aluminum. Care should be taken to minimize hydrogen pickup during fabrication. Welding operations generally require inert gas shielding to minimize hydrogen pickup. Hydrogen can be removed from titanium by annealing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006784
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... formation of hydrides varies with alloy composition and is reduced substantially by alloying with aluminum. Care should be taken to minimize hydrogen pickup during fabrication. Welding operations generally require inert gas shielding to minimize hydrogen pickup. Hydrogen can be removed from titanium...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003548
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... and alloys in seawater. Alloys are listed in order of the potential they exhibit in flowing seawater; those indicated by the black rectangle were tested in low-velocity or poorly aerated water and at shielded areas may become active and exhibit a potential near −0.5 V. Adapted from Ref 2 Although...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006783
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...). Fig. 3 Galvanic series of metals and alloys in seawater. Alloys are listed in order of the potential they exhibit in flowing seawater; those indicated by a black rectangle were tested in low-velocity or poorly aerated water and at shielded areas may become active and exhibit a potential near −0.5 V...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001813
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... was installed in a machine assembly that was welded into its final location. During welding, which was conducted several inches from the spring, no shield was used to prevent spatter from landing on the wire surface. Figure 18 shows an elongated drop of metal a short distance from the fracture and two tiny...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003543
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006778
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001818
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... welding procedures. Therefore, complete control of composition is of the utmost importance when welding is involved. As an example of improper material specification or use, galvanized steel clips were welded to stainless steel piping. The galvanized (zinc) coating became molten during the welding...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003522
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... (or less commonly, when similar metals are in electrical contact via either dissimilar electrolytes or even a similar electrolyte with a temperature differential) Crevice corrosion, which is recognized by its local nature and its attack in an area that is shielded from full exposure to the environment...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006757
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... crack, as shown in Fig. 42 It is apparent that the particle is primarily copper, while small amounts of lead and tin were also recorded. The explanation is that the copper precipitated from molten Babbitt metal, a result of intermittent lubrication breakdown and subsequent overheating...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001810
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1