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shielding gases

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001145
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
.... The breech chamber and cartridge chamber are joined by means of a bayonet closure. The cartridge is fired electrically and the hot gases generated exit through the exhaust port on the top of the breech chamber. To prevent overheating of the chamber dome there are two Inconel heat shields welded inside...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c9001508
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
...-P-408 gas turbine (turbojet) engines, involves the rework and/or replacement of many components including the fuel nozzle heat shields. These heat shields, which are fabricated by press forming from annealed type 321 corrosion resistant steel (CRES) sheet, are utilized to keep hot combustion gases...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001043
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
...Abstract Abstract A 76 mm (3 in.) type 304 stainless steel tube that was used as a heat shield and water nozzle support in a hydrogen gas plant quench pot failed in a brittle manner. Visual examination of a sample from the failed tube showed that one lip of the section was eroded from service...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001647
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... (GTAWs) Cause Potential Observations Relating to Cause Surface contamination Presence of contaminants potentially detectable before or after welding Random distribution of porosity Poor shield gas coverage Surface discoloration from oxidation Random distribution of porosity...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003509
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... and discontinuities in welded joints General Types of Weld Discontinuities Weld discontinuities (or imperfections) can be caused by various design, processing, or metallurgical factors. Joint design, edge preparation, fit-up, cleanness of base metal and filler metal, shielding, and welding technique all...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001616
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
..., with a 2 mm thickness. Fig. 1 Schematic of the air preheater showing the different stages and the direction of air and flue gases (note the part of the outer shield is shown in open to reveal the pipes) The corrosion was not uniform on all the tubes and stages in the preheater. Approximately...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... and the heating of steam in a superheater or reheater. The heat-flow path through a clean boiler tube has three components. First, fire-side heat transfer from the flame or hot flue gases is by both radiation and convection. Radiation predominates in the furnace, where the gas temperatures may be close to 1650 °C...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001328
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
.... Applications The catalytic steam reforming process uses light to medium hydrocarbons in a certain ratio to steam in order to produce different synthesis gases (i.e. methanol, hydrogen, towngas, CO-CO 2 , oxoalcohols, or reduction gas). The heart of the steam reforming process is the primary reformer...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003568
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of mechanical seals for abrasive service are even axially split for ease of replacement. Another example of abrasive erosion is the impact of fly ash entrained in the flue gases in screen tubes or superheater tubes of boiler systems. Erosion is enhanced by high flow velocities; thus, partial fouling of gas...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006795
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... approach the material surface (e.g., flux rate) influences the particle-particle and particle-surface interactions, mechanism, and rate of erosion. Possible rebounding of particles (especially during a normal angle of impact during gas-jet erosion testing) can cause shielding of the surface, changing...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001534
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... operating life, the component was filled with ammonia. The internal pressure was dropping from 0.1 MPa to the final pressure of 0.04 MPa, and the temperature was correspondingly decreasing from 270 to 241 K. It was reported that the failed pipe had been welded to the dished end by shielded metal arc...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001560
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... cartridge is placed in a cartridge chamber/breech chamber assembly and electrically ignited. The expanding gases generated from the burning cartridge provide the necessary energy to start the engines. Premature failures of the breech chambers have become a concern to the U.S.A. F. A view of the domed...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003555
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... to have good adherence to the substrate as well as ductility to resist thermal cycling; in addition, they must avoid defects that may provide easy pathways to deleterious gases and maintain corrosion resistance over the design life of the high-temperature component. Aluminide coatings on transition...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001818
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... they determine whether the material is stressed above or below any ductile-to-brittle transition temperature below which relatively low energy fractures can occur. Other degradation mechanisms, such as corrosion and scaling; stress corrosion; erosion from flowing gases, liquids, and solids; hydrogen damage...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003552
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., and service of metals from operations such as: Refining (precipitates upon solidification from supersaturated concentrations) Acid cleaning (pickling) Electroplating Contact with water or other hydrogen-containing liquids or gases Depending on the type of hydrogen-metal interaction...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006784
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... attack Steels subject to combined high-temperature and high-pressure hydrogen. Also affects copper Irreversible chemical reactions of hydrogen with matrix or alloy elements form high-pressure pockets of gases other than molecular hydrogen. Cracking from hydride formation Transition, rare earth...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001119
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... surface; final fracture occurred in torsion. Applications Helical compression springs are used in a component of heavy truck engines. They may be subjected to corrosive environments, including exposure to exhaust gases. Circumstances Leading to Failure After approximately 80,000 km (50,000...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c9001591
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... the molten steel to assist in mixing the alloy additions, such as carbon, manganese, and silicon, and to partially purge dissolved gases, such as hydrogen and oxygen. The silicon was added to provide deoxidation of the steel. Phosphorus and sulfur were reduced by the use of a special molten slag of basic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006764
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003567
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... such as coal gasification involves hot gases with entrained solid particles that impinge on the containment vessel surface. Several studies have been conducted to describe the wear-corrosion synergism that takes place during the oxide formation and subsequent removal by abrasive particles ( Ref 10 , 11 , 12...