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shell mold castings

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006831
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
.... In shell-mold castings of gray iron, the high thermal conductivity of the mold produces an initial chill of the iron surface. Subsequent annealing of the surface by the heat of the casting results in a skin that is almost 100% ferrite; such a skin has poor wear properties and should be removed by machining...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003508
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... molds. It presents the international classification of common casting defects in a tabular form. austenitic steels cast aluminum alloys cast iron casting casting defects casting design castings centrifugal casting corrosion-resistant castings discontinuities ductile iron gravity die...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.9781627083294
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006812
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... for a four-year period beginning in 1981. Faulty design, fabrication, and inspection contribute to significant numbers of failures, particularly for shell components. Damage during shipment and storage must be considered because air and its contaminants may be corrosive. Field fabrication and erection...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001818
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... heads and an 8-mm ( 5 16 -in.) thick SA455A steel shell, ruptured after about 3 years of service, launching the body of the vessel into a neighboring house. The accumulator was used in a plastic molding operation and operated at a pressure of 827 kPa (120 psi), dropping to 780 kPa (113 psi...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001814
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., and so on) and machining processes (drilling, turning, milling, and so on). Second, tools and dies are generally used at higher hardnesses than most other steel products; 58 to 68 HRC is a typical range. Dies for plastic molding or hot working are usually used at lower hardnesses, typically from 30 to 55...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006818
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
...-related failures, the as-cast layer is not observed, because of the technique used or because of subsequent machining. In these failures, however, an outer layer of brittle as-quenched (white-etching) martensite is present. Such a failure is shown in Fig. 9 . This failure occurred in a plastic-mold die...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003548
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., such as magnesium or zinc, may be introduced into the galvanic assembly. The most active member will corrode while providing cathodic protection to the other members in the galvanic assembly (for example, zinc anodes in cast iron waterboxes of copper alloy water-cooled heat exchangers). Cathodic protection...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006783
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... preferentially while providing cathodic protection to the other members in the galvanic assembly (for example, zinc anodes in cast iron waterboxes of copper alloy water-cooled heat exchangers). Cathodic protection is often used for the protection of underground or underwater steel structures. The use...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006765
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., and epoxy, while methyl methacrylate is the most commonly used thermoplastic mounting resin. Both thermosetting and thermoplastic materials require heat and pressure during the molding cycle, but, after curing, mounts made of thermoplastic resins must be cooled under pressure to at least 70 °C (158 °F...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001648
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... molded within a metal cylindrical shell. Each bearing was, in turn, seated in the bore of a bearing retainer. The rim of each individual retainer was configured to seat into a machined location at the flange connection between mating sections of the pump housing. Figure 9 shows a bearing retainer...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003509
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... and localized embrittlement at the crack tips. The recommendation from this analysis was to perform stress-relief heat treatments to reduce residual-stress levels after welding non-pressure-retaining components to certain pressure shells. This treatment should reduce residual stresses and lessen...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001809
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Materials The lowest cost bearings are bushings of molded polymers (plastics) in which steel shafts rotate. The lowest cost polymers are the nylons and acetals. At low sliding speeds, they usually wear by abrasion due to dirt or the roughness of the surface of the shaft. Polymers have two...