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sheet metal forming

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Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003507
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... The article provides a discussion on the imperfections found in steel forgings. The problems encountered in sheet metal forming are also discussed. The article concludes with information on the causes of failure in cold formed parts. anisotropy blisters centerline shrinkage chemical segregation cold...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006801
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... metal, and springback/dimensional. It discusses the processes involved in analytical tools that aid in characterizing the state of a formed part. In addition, information on draw panel analysis and troubleshooting of sheet forming failures is also provided. draw panel analysis fractures necks...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006791
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., roughening and creations of protrusion rising above the original surface. It often includes material transfer, or plastic flow, or both.” Thus, the wear in metal forming, being also the dominant cause of tool failure ( Ref 51 ) (especially in deep drawing, fine blanking, and sheet metal forming), is often...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c0046079
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
... the highest temperature in service. A 400x etched micrograph showed a brittle and somewhat porous metallic layer about 0.025 mm (0.001 in.) thick on both surfaces of the sheet. Next to this was an apparently single-phase region nearly 0.05 mm (0.002 in.) in thickness. The examination supported the conclusion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0048835
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... during examination of a naphtha desulfurizer by ultrasonic shear wave techniques. Defect indications were found in longitudinal and circumferential seam welds of the ASTM A204, grade A, steel sheet. The vessel was found to have a type 405 stainless steel liner for corrosion protection that was spot...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c9001223
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
... Abstract The corner of a welded sheet construction made from austenitic corrosion-resistant chromium-nickel steel showed corrosive attack of the outer sheet. This attack was most severe at the points subjected to the greatest heat during welding. Particularly large amounts of weld metal had...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001205
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... at the point of highest stress, but approximately 200 mm above it. A bell-shaped sheet metal cap was welded onto the shaft at this point. The tubing had fractured about 10 mm under this weld seam. The steel of the shaft tubing contained only 0.033P and 0.004N, and thus was not considered prone to brittle...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001311
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... Tube section near the bottom tube sheet, showing an area at the weld/base metal interface where a combination of both uniform and localized corrosion occurred. In this particular section, the wall thickness has been reduced to 0.8 mm (0.032 in.) by the uniform attack and to 0.56 mm (0.022...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001710
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... using a TIG process. Much of the sheet metal structure was about 3.2 mm (0.125 in.) thick with the extruded bar load carrying members slightly thicker. The frame structure was not designed to withstand heavy loads from lifting and twisting with many 75–100 mm (3–4 in.) skip welds used in the fabrication...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001216
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... of the sheet as a result of play between the stamping cylinder and the anvil head (ringed dimple). Frequently, overlapping of several defects occurs, especially with steel or titanium sheet, with the result that it is difficult to identify the defects. Dimpling Sheet metal Stamping AlZnMgCu 1.5...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0089738
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... Measures The doubler collar was made so that it could be placed in intimate contact with the header duct (improved design, section A-A, Fig. 1 ). The two sheets were beveled, where necessary, to form a V-groove joint with the tube. Two weld passes in the V-groove were used to join the two sheets...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006935
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... Process Reinforcement Capabilities and Selected Properties Foam Injection Molding Compression Molding Sandwich Molding Stamping Blow Molding Extrusion Twin-Sheet Forming Thermoforming Twin-Sheet Stamping Filament Winding Rotational Casting Shape and Design Detail...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001106
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... for temperatures up to 760 °C (1400 °F). The carbon in the steel reacted with the chromium to form carbides, removing the chromium from solution and reducing the oxidation resistance of the metal. Carbide growth is most pronounced at 650 °C (1200 °F), and cycling of the metal from 650 to 800 °C (1200 to 1470 °F...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006864
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... be minimized. The rate of sag is also highly dependent on the transient extensional viscosity. Materials that exhibit strain hardening have a reduced sag rate; materials that exhibit strain softening have an increased sag rate. Sheet stretching is dominated by large strains, especially during deep-draw forming...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001047
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... analysis of the bulk materials was performed using scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Results indicated that the bulk chemical compositions of the tube sheet conformed to E-Brite and Ferralium, as expected. The weld metal composition was similar to that of Ferralium...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001817
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... be inspected immediately before forming and welding and can be rejected if it does not meet quality requirements. Alignment and drilling of tube sheets and tube-support plates to reasonable tolerances will ease tube insertion and will minimize stresses induced during the fabrication of heat exchangers...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0046252
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... occurred in welded joints and in unwelded portions of the bellows. The bellows were made by forming the convolution halves from stainless steel sheet, then welding the convolutions together. Evidence from visual examination, liquid penetrant inspection chemical analysis, hardness tests, and metallographic...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001528
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
.... The hoop stresses induced by bending the sheet to form the circumference of the tank are well above the material yield strength. However, the final fabrication stresses in the finished tank are dependent on the clamping forces applied during welding, and these cannot be calculated. Also, the tank...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001235
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... to its concentration and tears the metal apart. In soft steels of large strain capacity as are discussed here, separations and blisters are formed far below the yield point of the steel and an additional tensile strain may lead to fractures as well 2 , 3 . High strength steels with correspondingly low...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001238
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... a few months service in a through-type annealing furnace, although the temperature is supposed not to have exceeded 1050°C. The strips, wound in a zig-zag form, were situated under the material to be annealed. The latter consisted of dynamo and transformer sheets, which were annealed in a decarburising...