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sheet forming

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006801
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... Abstract Sheet forming failures divert resources from normal business activities and have significant bottom-line impact. This article focuses on the formation, causes, and limitations of four primary categories of sheet forming failures, namely necks, fractures/splits/cracks, wrinkles/loose...
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Published: 30 August 2021
Fig. 18 Schematic of buckling failure of a thin sheet in a riveted joint. Countersinking the top sheet formed a sharp edge at the faying surface. More
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 18 Schematic of buckling failure of a thin sheet in a riveted joint. Countersinking the top sheet formed a sharp edge at the faying surface. More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006935
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... Cold press … 40 … + to − 11.0 1.5 High Low (a) SMC, sheet molding compound; HMC, high-strength sheet molding compound; BMC, bulk molding compound; ZMC, Z molding compound Process Effects on Molecular Orientation Polymer molecules in the melt form flow in a non-Newtonian manner...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001216
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... Abstract Countersunk riveted joints in aluminum sheet are widely employed in the aircraft industry. The preparation of the sheet for the riveting process consists either of countersinking where the sheet is sufficiently thick or of dimpling. Metallographic assessment of dimple defects...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003507
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... The article provides a discussion on the imperfections found in steel forgings. The problems encountered in sheet metal forming are also discussed. The article concludes with information on the causes of failure in cold formed parts. anisotropy blisters centerline shrinkage chemical segregation cold...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006791
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... 15 , 48 Fig. 8 Example of seizure on a piston due to insufficient cooling. Source: Ref 49 Galling Galling is an adhesive wear failure associated with forming and the tendency of a lubricant film to break down, resulting in the transfer and pickup of sheet or work material...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c0046079
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
... that prolonged heating of the galvanized steel heater shells caused the zinc-rich surface to become alloyed with iron and reduce the number of layers. Also, heating caused zinc to diffuse along grain boundaries toward the center of the sheet. Zinc in the grain boundaries reacted with iron to form the brittle...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c9001223
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
... Abstract The corner of a welded sheet construction made from austenitic corrosion-resistant chromium-nickel steel showed corrosive attack of the outer sheet. This attack was most severe at the points subjected to the greatest heat during welding. Particularly large amounts of weld metal had...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0047076
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... Abstract Two cracks were discovered in a deck plate of an aircraft during overhaul and repair after 659 h of service. The cracks were on opposite sides of the deck plate in the flange joggles. The plate had been formed from 7178-T6 aluminum alloy sheet. Analysis (visual inspection, 0.2x/2x/2.3x...
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Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 2 (a) A magnetite coating on hot rolled sheet, with fresh rust breaking through; (b) Hot rolled surface, about 60% covered with fresh rust; (c) Hot rolled steel, with all the original magnetite lost. Rust is beginning to darken where arrowed, to form hematite. More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001047
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... Abstract An E-Brite /Ferralium explosively bonded tube sheet in a nitric acid condenser was removed from service because of corrosion. Visual and metallographic examination of tube sheet samples revealed severe cracking in the heat-affected zone between the outer tubes and the weld joining...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001063
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... steel tubes, propagating downward. The ID surfaces of the tubes were free from any form of corrosion. Also free from corrosion was the pipe that connects the reactor and the condenser, and sees the VAM vapor and the condensate. The bottom tube sheet showed deep pit marks on the shell side...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001458
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... Abstract Two cases of failure of centrifuge baskets were investigated. The first involved a centrifuge running at approximately 1000 rpm. The basket was constructed from a perforated sheet of stainless steel rolled into a cylinder and joined by a single vee longitudinal weld. Detailed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001836
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... , p 695 – 706 . 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001820 • Bending and Forming of Tubing , Metalworking: Sheet Forming , Vol 14B , ASM Handbook , Semiatin S.L. , Ed., ASM International , 2006 , p 461 – 471 . 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005135 ...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0047611
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... tubes expanded and welded into two type 304L stainless steel tube sheets. The tubes failed by crevice corrosion. The failed tubes were defective as-received, and the establishment of concentration cells within the longitudinal cracks in the seam welds led to ultimate corrosive penetration of the wall...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c0046956
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... Abstract A brazing-furnace muffle 34 cm (13 in.) wide, 26 cm (10 in.) high, and 198 cm (78 in.) long, was fabricated from nickel-base high-temperature alloy sheet and installed in a gas-fired furnace used for copper brazing of various assemblies. The operating temperature of the muffle...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006864
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... in heavy-gage operations. The sheet is heated by both convection and radiant heat transfer from electrical heating elements. Film/foil forming requires specialized conductive heating elements. Using conduction heating instead of radiative heating elements prevents the film from excessive heating...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0046252
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... occurred in welded joints and in unwelded portions of the bellows. The bellows were made by forming the convolution halves from stainless steel sheet, then welding the convolutions together. Evidence from visual examination, liquid penetrant inspection chemical analysis, hardness tests, and metallographic...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001205
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... Abstract A cross crowned by a gilded cock on a church steeple hung in a slanted position from its support after a stormy night. Fracture had occurred on the shaft of the cross which was formed by a seamless steel tubing of 60 mm OD and 2.7 mm wall thickness. The fracture had not occurred...