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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c0046079
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
... that prolonged heating of the galvanized steel heater shells caused the zinc-rich surface to become alloyed with iron and reduce the number of layers. Also, heating caused zinc to diffuse along grain boundaries toward the center of the sheet. Zinc in the grain boundaries reacted with iron to form the brittle...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c0046956
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... Abstract A brazing-furnace muffle 34 cm (13 in.) wide, 26 cm (10 in.) high, and 198 cm (78 in.) long, was fabricated from nickel-base high-temperature alloy sheet and installed in a gas-fired furnace used for copper brazing of various assemblies. The operating temperature of the muffle...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001047
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
..., corrosion Ferralium UNS S39255 E-Brite UNS S44627 Intergranular corrosion Intergranular fracture Background A tube sheet in a nitric acid condenser was removed from service because of corrosion. The tube sheet was fabricated from 8.25 nun (0.325 in.) thick E-Brite, which was explosively bonded...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001528
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
.... The hoop stresses induced by bending the sheet to form the circumference of the tank are well above the material yield strength. However, the final fabrication stresses in the finished tank are dependent on the clamping forces applied during welding, and these cannot be calculated. Also, the tank...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006864
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... in heavy-gage operations. The sheet is heated by both convection and radiant heat transfer from electrical heating elements. Film/foil forming requires specialized conductive heating elements. Using conduction heating instead of radiative heating elements prevents the film from excessive heating...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c9001508
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
... turbine (turbojet) engines, involves the rework and/or replacement of many components including the fuel nozzle heat shields. These heat shields, which are fabricated by press forming from annealed type 321 corrosion resistant steel (CRES) sheet, are utilized to keep hot combustion gases from affecting...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006927
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... for thermoforming (including vacuum forming and pressure forming) is most often manufactured from aluminum or other high conductivity materials used to cool the softened sheet during the low-pressure forming process. For thick wall thermoforming, the process used for structural parts (not thin-wall packaging...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001710
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... the extensive nodular corrosion product on the external surface of the racks as shown in Figure 3 and to inspect the other weld areas. Fig. 3 Nodular corrosion product on storage rack The storage rack structure was fabricated from 6061 aluminum alloy. Rolled sheet and extruded bar were welded...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006935
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... Cold press … 40 … + to − 11.0 1.5 High Low (a) SMC, sheet molding compound; HMC, high-strength sheet molding compound; BMC, bulk molding compound; ZMC, Z molding compound Process Effects on Molecular Orientation Polymer molecules in the melt form flow in a non-Newtonian manner...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001817
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... be inspected immediately before forming and welding and can be rejected if it does not meet quality requirements. Alignment and drilling of tube sheets and tube-support plates to reasonable tolerances will ease tube insertion and will minimize stresses induced during the fabrication of heat exchangers...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001525
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
..., a recommendation was made to review and correct the problem at the forming stage. However, another concern that needed to be addressed was the general corrosion that developed in a small percentage of the tanks, even though all were reportedly fabricated with identical materials and by the same forming steps...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001032
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... Abstract A Stirling engine heat pipe failed after only 2h of operation in a test situation. Cracking at the leading edge of an evaporator fin allowed air to enter the system and react with the sodium coolant. The fin was fabricated from 0.8 mm (0.03 in.) thick Inconel 600 sheet. The wick...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001401
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... the combined effect of residual stresses and the corrosive effect of the material being centrifuged. If the shell had been stress-relieved after fabrication, the failure likely would not have occurred. Corrosion environments Extraction plants Extractors Hydro extractors Rivets Shells (structural...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006838
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... MANUFACTURING (AM) refers to a group of free-form fabrication technologies that incrementally build up a solid part by computer-controlled deposition of material from a digital solid model. The technology is an outgrowth and broadening of rapid prototyping methods that were developed in the 1980s to accelerate...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001028
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... S32100 Fatigue fracture Joining-related failures Background Several AISI type 321 stainless steel welded oil tank assemblies used on helicopter engine systems began to leak in service. Applications Oil tanks with a capacity of 15 L (4 gal) fabricated from type 321 stainless steel sheet...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001348
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... originated. These tanks were fabricated by cold-forming operations without any final stress-relieving treatment. From the appearance of bulges at the dished ends, it was inferred that severe hammering could have been resorted to in the fit-up operations before welding. Thus, complex patterns of residual...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001832
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
.... The cold forming of the sheet into tube would induce a residual stress field in which cracks are expected to be parallel to the weld; however, the cracks are perpendicular to the weld. Stresses in this direction could result from: (1) the high residual stresses due to fit-up welding at either end...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003507
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... The article provides a discussion on the imperfections found in steel forgings. The problems encountered in sheet metal forming are also discussed. The article concludes with information on the causes of failure in cold formed parts. anisotropy blisters centerline shrinkage chemical segregation cold...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001837
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... is 650–700 MPa and the strength rises to 1000–1180 MPa in treated condition. This makes the steel particularly suitable for large fabrications that require high strength and require that the welding of material in hardened-tempered condition [ 1 ]. The most important reason for the wide applicability...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001590
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... N06601 Intergranular fracture Steam reforming of natural gas is considered the most economic process for industrial hydrogen production. By this process, a mixture of methane and steam forms hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide while flowing through a catalyst bed. Steam reforming...