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secondary superheater tube

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001341
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... An as-polished section across the primary fracture through the second tube failure. 250×. (a) The inside diameter. (b) The outside diameter (fracture origin). A uniform oxide type corrosion product is visible along the fractures urface Fig. 7 The secondary crack through the third superheater tube...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0048845
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
...-to-header welds in the secondary superheater outlet headers (constructed of SA335-P11 material) of a major boiler were described as an example. The OD of the header was measured to detect the amount of swelling and found to have increased 1.6% since its installation. Ligament cracks extending from tube seat...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001337
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
...Abstract Abstract A carbon-molybdenum (ASTM A209 Grade T1) steel superheater tube section in an 8.6 MPa (1250 psig) boiler cracked because of long-term overheating damage that resulted from prolonged exposure to metal temperatures between 482 deg C (900 deg F) and 551 deg C (1025 deg F...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001330
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
...Abstract Abstract Two superheater tubes from a 6.2 MPa (900 psig) boiler failed in service because of creep rupture. One tube was carbon steel and the other was carbon steel welded to ASTM A213 Grade T22 (2.25Cr-1.0Mo) tubing. The failure in the welded tube occurred in the carbon steel section...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0091028
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... ruptured and buckled with some secondary internal cracks apparent ( Fig. 1a ). The fracture surface was “thick-lipped,” and the inside diameter exhibited a tenacious, black magnetite coating. Fig. 1 Fracture of a steel superheater tube. (a) The interior of the tube that fractured showing secondary...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001569
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... the remaining life of other units. Boilers Economizers Superheaters Tubing Steel tube Corrosion fatigue Transgranular fracture Fatigue fracture Introduction Case Histories Summary Selected References Selected References • French D.N. , Failures of Boilers and Related...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001344
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... was indicated to be 51 mm (2.0 in.), with a nominal wall thickness of 5 mm (0.200 in.). Performance of Other Parts in Same or Similar Service Subsequent inspection of the superheater banks showed no leaks in the primary or secondary banks, which were fabricated from 2.25Cr-1.0Mo low-alloy steel. The tube...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001279
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... to be replaced during a scheduled outage. Boiler tubes Graphitization Mechanical properties ASME SA219-T1A UNS K12023 High-temperature corrosion and oxidation Creep fracture/stress rupture Background Applications The superheater tubes were from a utility boiler, a base-loaded unit that had...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... by secondary, circumferential fracture. The main fracture usually has a fishmouth appearance ( Fig. 6a ) and is either a thick-lip or a thin-lip rupture. Fig. 6 Type 321 stainless steel (ASME SA-213, grade TP321H) superheater tube that failed by thick-lip stress rupture. (a) Overall view showing...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001322
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
...: Tube 1, a ruptured vertical superheater support tube positioned approximately in the middle of the furnace Tube 2, a vertical main bank tube with a small split, located near the side wall Tube 3, a horizontal superheater support tube with a cracked fillet weld Some of the tubes adjacent...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001321
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
...Abstract Abstract Tube failures occurred in quick succession in two boiler units from a bank of six boilers in a refinery. The failures were confined to the SAE 192 carbon steel horizontal support tubes of the superheater pack. In both cases, the failure was by perforation adjacent...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001669
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... of superheater tube failures; and, (2) evidence of subsurface cracking in the longitudinal seam in Course 1 had been detected by ultrasonic testing and metallographic examination in 1980, during repair of the drain connector socket weld located on the bottom right end of the header (see Figure 2 ). Based...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006756
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... as a component that is no longer able to perform its intended function. This could apply at any time during the product life cycle. Damage does not necessarily mean failure. For example, power boiler superheater tubes undergo damage in the form of high-temperature degradation as the microstructure decomposes...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003517
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... and tubing. The article discusses metallurgical instabilities of steel-based alloys and nickel-base superalloys. It provides information on several life assessment methods, namely, the life fraction rule, parameter-based assessments, the thermal-mechanical fatigue, coating evaluations, hardness testing...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003521
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... deposit/corrosion product buildup Fireside wastage Fireside oxidation Fireside corrosion of superheater and reheater tubing Fly ash corrosion Sootblower corrosion Coal particle corrosion Steam impingement Fireside corrosion of waterwall tubing Low temperature (dew point...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...). Adapted from Ref 69 Fig. 17 Appearance of fireside surface after removing ash deposits from a superheater/reheater tube experiencing coal-ash corrosion. Circumferential grooves are referred to as “alligator hide.” Source: Ref 65 . Courtesy of D.N. French Fig. 18 Fireside surface...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006778
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... by hardness check or destructive testing, chemical analysis • Loading direction may show failure was secondary • Short-term, high-temperature, high-stress rupture has ductile appearance (see creep) • Load exceeded the dynamic strength of the part • Check for proper alloy and processing as well as proper...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001396
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... boiler and superheater tubes results from the so-called “steam-iron reaction,” 3 Fe + 4 H 2 O = Fe 3 O 4 + 4 H 2 which becomes significant at metal temperatures of the order of 600°C. The scale found externally is due to high temperature oxidation. In these instances...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003543
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... was secondary• Short-term, high-temperature, high-stress rupture has ductile appearance (see creep) • Load exceeded the dynamic strength of the part• Check for proper alloy and processing as well as proper toughness, grain size• Loading direction may show failure was secondary or impact induced• Low...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001818
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... the scale. The high density of inclusions was assumed to be the result of improper cropping of the ingot from which the tube for the return bend was made. Conclusions The return bend failed as a result of stress-corrosion cracking (SCC), which propagated because of the presence of numerous inclusions...