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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001343
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
.... Metallographic examination of the cracked area indicated stress-corrosion cracking, which had originated at rusted areas that had formed on longitudinal scratch marks on the outer surface of the pipe. The material was free from sensitization, and there was no significant amount of cold work. It was recommended...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001076
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
...Abstract Abstract The silver layer on a thrust bearing face experienced electrostatic discharge attack (the bombardment of an in-line series of individual sparks onto the soft bearing face), which destroyed the integrity of the bearing surface. The electrical attack appeared as scratches...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001234
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
...Abstract Abstract In a copper hot water system, a bent pipe was soldered into a straight pipe with twice the diameter. The neighborhood of the soldered joint was covered with corrosion product predominantly blue-green in color, presumably carbonates. When these corrosion products were scratched...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006791
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... It includes information on standardized galling tests, twist compression, slider-on-flat-surface, load-scanning, and scratch tests. After a discussion on gear scuffing, information on the material-dependent adhesive wear and factors preventing adhesive wear is provided. References References 1...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001295
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... metallographically. These showed some variable characteristics, as discussed below. Failure Type 1 Failure type 1 showed a tensile fracture of typical cup-and-cone structure. A particular feature of this type of failure was the occurrence of several transverse scratch marks, approximately 0.1 to 0.15 mm...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001516
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... and appears in the shape of a deep and long scratch, scuff mark or a deposit. Such a phenomenon is described as a head crash. One can also observe a transfer of coating to the head. In hard drives the head is fixed on a very thin metallic flexure and flies over the surface of a high speed (3600 rpm...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003560
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Relationship of failure analysis to the design and production of a component. Source: Ref 2 Fig. 22 Scanning electron micrograph showing the surface wear on the disk cutter, which shows elements of indentation/impact and scratching or gouging Fig. 23 Disk cutter, comprised of H13 tool...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006790
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...-moving, mining, and mineral-processing industries, the following broad classifications have generally been used to describe the manifestations of abrasive wear that are seen on worn parts ( Ref 8 , 9 , 10 ): gouging abrasion; high-stress, or grinding, abrasion; low-stress, or scratching, abrasion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001695
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... of the radionuclide activity in the basin water. Figure 1 shows the Mark 22 assembly in the Vertical Tube Storage (VTS) section of K-reactor basin. The fuel rods are suspended underwater from 304-L stainless steel hangers. Note the nodules of aluminum oxide in scratches on the outer surface of the assemblies...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001636
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... Finishing Stress relief anneal Final machining Shot peening Dimensions Residual stress measurements Scratches Scratches and secondary cracks Service Service damage Scratches Scratches and secondary cracks Service stress level estimates Service failure versus full-scale...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c0091897
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
... moved radially during failure. Because the lockwasher and spacer sleeve were attached to the shaft and moved with it, the circular scratches on the contacting surfaces of the bearing and the sleeve, and those of the bearing and the lockwasher, indicate radial motion of the shaft. The scratches...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003571
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... , p 105 – 121 32. Briscoe B.J. , Evans P.D. , Pelillo E. , and Sinha S.K. , Scratching Maps for Polymers , Wear , Vol 200 , 1996 , p 137 – 147 33. Briscoe B.J. , Pelillo E. , and Sinha S.K. , Characterisation of the Scratch Deformation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006789
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., such as a ductile metal, inducing large plastic deformations followed by considerable loss of material by fracture processes such as scratching. Abrasion can also be produced by hard/sharp protuberances such as those on a metal file. Impact by hard substances can produce high-stress or gouging abrasion. Wear...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001455
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... with a Ministry of Supply specification. Subsequently, 1 2 in. wide gaps were machined through the external coatings and, in addition, the painted ones were marked with diagonal scratches. Paint was also applied over sprayed samples, in which gaps had been machined. Different samples, treated...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001757
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... General Inspection Visual inspection of the failed engine revealed that the 15th to 17th stage compressor was damaged and fractured. As shown in Fig. 2a , rotor blades are fractured. Additionally, damage of the Vane and scratching and rubbing of the casing were observed ( Fig. 2b ). The extent...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001849
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
..., such as roll marks, gouges, scratches that caused stress concentrations Phase 2: Variable stress states developed with each roll revolution lead to radial and circumferential crack propagation via operation of fatigue mechanism Phase 3: Subsurface fatigue mechanism leading to circumferential crack...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c0047109
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
... crests were flattened, and machining scratches were detected on the sides of some threads. Damaging as they were, these defects did not appear to have initiated the failure. Because the valve stem was subjected to heating from the combustion cycles, the microstructure of the failed stem was compared...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001132
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
.... The chrome-plated copper cups ( Fig. 2 ) exhibited no discoloration, indentations, or scratches. Fig. 2 Separated copper cups of the demo and failed units. Testing Procedure and Results Nondestructive Evaluation Hydrostatic pressure testing of an unfailed 1975 unit up to 3450 kPa (500 psi...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001166
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... of the corrosion product was scratched off all the specimens and analysed for carbon, sulphur and iron. The following values were obtained: According to these, the corrosion product consisted mainly of iron sulphide mixed with soot and rust. The pipes had thus been eroded not by mechanical wear...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0046222
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
...). Dimensions given in inches. (b) Longitudinal score mark (region A) and circumferential scratches (arrow B) on shank that had been peened over. A galled area (arrow C) is also visible. At every overhaul, the spindles were fluorescent-magnetic-particle inspected, and the surface was carefully examined...