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Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003552
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... be explained by the pressure theory. Hydrogen charged into steel during aqueous corrosion or cathodic charging can also produce a very high pressure at the surfaces of closed voids or pores. The reduced surface energy theory states that the absorption of hydrogen decreases the surface free energy...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006784
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... precipitates in microvoids, and an extremely high pressure of the gas can be developed. Flakes in heavy forgings and underbead cracks in weldments can be explained by the pressure theory. Hydrogen charged into steel during aqueous corrosion or cathodic charging can also produce a very high pressure...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006831
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... not reoxidize. Consideration of how the metal flow systems are designed requires decisions as to how many castings can be included in the mold versus how much room is required for the metal-delivery system. These decisions are based on the economics related to the scrap rate resulting from the metal-delivery...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001111
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... for construction of the bridge was melted by an electric furnace process using charge materials composed of purchased bundles of steel scrap, broken iron molds, and recycled steel scrap from the steel producer's shop. A one-slag practice was used, with liquid steel vacuum degassed by the DH method, which entails...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006838
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
..., such as particle size distribution, powder morphology, and surface chemistry, as well as external variables, such as humidity, triboelectric charge buildup, processing history, and so on. Highly spherical powders are believed to have better flowability properties, but there are exceptions to this, especially when...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.9781627083294
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006804
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... in the 10 ms range, depending on charge size). Shock waves are characterized by an instantaneous rise to peak pressure and then a decay in pressure, with a negative pressure phase prior to returning to ambient conditions. In the near field, these events produce shock waves with high overpressures (possibly...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.9781627083959
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003532
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... polishing is conducted with 9, 6, or 3 μm diamond abrasives charged onto napless or low-nap cloths. For hard materials, such as through-hardened steels, ceramics, and cemented carbides, two rough-polishing steps may be required. The initial rough-polishing step may be followed by polishing with 1 μm diamond...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... (or otherwise are revealed), possibly rendering the parts as scrap. Discontinuities can be categorized as existing flaws and defects. Flaws are a detectable imperfection in a workpiece. Detectability is a universal distinction for the term flaw . A flaw may not make a workpiece nonconforming. By definition...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006864
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006765
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... ), staining ( Fig. 13 ), relief (height differences between different constituents, or between holes and constituents) ( Fig. 14 ), or embedding ( Fig. 15 ). Polishing usually is conducted in several stages. Rough polishing is conducted with 9, 6, and/or 3 μm diamond abrasives charged onto napless or low-nap...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003507
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., materials selection, and use problems: for example, underfill, part distortion, and poor dimensional control; tool overload and breakage; excessive tool wear; high initial investment due to equipment cost; poor material use and high scrap loss The movement of metal during these processes, whether...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006835
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... and breakage; excessive tool wear; poor material use; high scrap loss The movement of metal during these processes, whether performed at room temperature or at elevated temperatures, makes them common sources of surface discontinuities, such as laps, seams, and cold shuts. Oxides, slivers or chips...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... is indicated by an increase in valence or a release of electrons. A decrease in valence charge or the consumption of electrons signifies a reduction or cathodic reaction. Equations 3 and 4 are partial reactions; both must occur simultaneously and at the same rate on the metal surface. If this were not true...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006815
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... of continuously, as intended. The purchaser claimed that the units did not meet the specification, and they were all removed from service and scrapped without payment to the manufacturer. At the same time, another supplier was contracted to provide quite different replacement units. Investigation revealed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006837
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... shops have employed magnification and bright lights to inspect, while others have employed policies that if corrosion is present, the axle is scrapped. While the latter method is conservative, it does provide a strong position regarding the condition of the axle at time of reconditioning...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006764
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... can be used to detect internal laws in most engineering metals and alloys. Bonds produced by welding, brazing, soldering, and adhesive bonding can also be ultrasonically examined. In-line techniques have been developed for monitoring and classifying materials as acceptable, salvageable, or scrap...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003510
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... and shaker hearth furnaces should only occur with thorough purging to minimize atmosphere contamination. Hardening furnaces typically contain excessive loads prior to quenching. If the steel at quenching temperature is greater than 20% of the distance from discharge to charge door, it is too much. Either...