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scanning electron microscopes

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Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 6 A scanning electron microscope picture of the “rock candy” fracture surface. More
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Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 5 Scanning electron microscope photo of “etched” surface on pipe inside surface More
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Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 2 Scanning electron microscope micrograph of typical eye fracture morphology consisting of woody, ductile features. 500× More
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Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 2 Scanning electron microscope photograph of the banded regions. Some smoothing of the asperities from continued operation is evident. In the crators the residue of partial melting can be seen. More
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Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 6 Fracture plane in scanning electron microscope. Lower right: Ductile fracture, top: Conchoidal fracture. 2000 × More
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Published: 01 December 2019
Fig. 6 Scanning electron microscopic fractograph showing the faint horizontal striations and fine steps More
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Published: 01 December 2019
Fig. 10 Scanning electron microscope shows typical branching stress-corrosion cracking initiated from bolt thread. It is clear that the crack was propagated through 90% of the bolt cross section. Magnification: 40× More
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Published: 01 December 2019
Fig. 11 Metallographic scanning electron microscope shows typical stress-corrosion cracking initiated from the thread bottom. Localized pits and branching cracks are visible. Magnification: 120× More
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Published: 01 December 2019
Fig. 12 Metallographic scanning electron microscope shows typical branching transgranular cracks observed in examined bolts. Magnification: ( a ) 1809. ( b ) 120× More
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Published: 01 December 2019
Fig. 7 Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of the fracture surfaces of select cracks More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006769
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Abstract The scanning electron microscope (SEM) is one of the most versatile instruments for investigating the microscopic features of most solid materials. The SEM provides the user with an unparalleled ability to observe and quantify the surface of a sample. This article discusses...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006770
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Abstract X-ray spectroscopy is generally accepted as the most useful ancillary technique that can be added to any scanning electron microscope (SEM), even to the point of being considered a necessity by most operators. While “stand-alone” x-ray detection systems are used less frequently...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.rail.c9001719
EISBN: 978-1-62708-231-0
... phase material, one can use various x-ray spectrographic techniques in conjunction with a scanning electron microscope (SEM). This study describes those metallographic and SEM analysis techniques for determining the mode of failure for a locomotive traction motor by LME. Intergranular fracture...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001666
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... surfaces. Microstructural details were revealed by the use of field metallographic preparation techniques and replicated by acetate foil for examination with optical and scanning electron microscopes. It was possible by these techniques to establish the cracking mechanism as stress corrosion possibly...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001021
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... in the form of flight by-flight records of the counts from the vertical accelerometer sensors fitted to the airframe and a series of “overstress” events recorded during the life of the aircraft. The bolt hole was examined by eddy current testing, visual examination, high-powered light microscope, and scanning...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001380
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... One of the two AISI 4340 steel pitch horn bolts from the main rotor hub assembly failed while in service. Optical microscope revealed evidence of corrosion pitting in regions adjacent to the fracture. Fractographic examination utilizing a scanning electron microscope revealed multiple crack origins...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006765
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... be performed with the scanning electron microscope (SEM) over the same magnification range as the LM, but examination with the latter is more efficient. This article describes the major operations in the preparation of metallographic specimens, namely sectioning, mounting, grinding, polishing, and etching...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003536
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... that are based on fracture profilometry. This is followed by a section describing the methods based on scanning electron microscope fractography. The article also addresses procedures for three-dimensional fracture surface reconstruction. In each case, sufficient methodological details, governing equations...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001761
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... initiated, was determined by scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with electron-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX). Microhardness gradient through the nitrided layer close to fracture, surface hardness, and macrohardness at the journals were all measured. Fractographic analysis indicated that fatigue...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001656
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... Abstract Some corrosion processes in the presence of chlorides, for steel embedded in concrete, are described and illustrated with the aid of scanning electron microscope EDXA data. Observations made of failure surfaces of reinforcements removed from the concrete beams after being subjected...