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scanning electron microscope

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006769
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Abstract The scanning electron microscope (SEM) is one of the most versatile instruments for investigating the microscopic features of most solid materials. The SEM provides the user with an unparalleled ability to observe and quantify the surface of a sample. This article discusses...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006765
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... be performed with the scanning electron microscope (SEM) over the same magnification range as the LM, but examination with the latter is more efficient. This article describes the major operations in the preparation of metallographic specimens, namely sectioning, mounting, grinding, polishing, and etching...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001380
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... Abstract One of the two AISI 4340 steel pitch horn bolts from the main rotor hub assembly failed while in service. Optical microscope revealed evidence of corrosion pitting in regions adjacent to the fracture. Fractographic examination utilizing a scanning electron microscope revealed multiple crack...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001021
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... and a series of “overstress” events recorded during the life of the aircraft. The bolt hole was examined by eddy current testing, visual examination, high-powered light microscope, and scanning electron microscope. Simulation tests were also conducted. The use of simulation specimens permitted actual crack...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001761
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... by scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with electron-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX). Microhardness gradient through the nitrided layer close to fracture, surface hardness, and macrohardness at the journals were all measured. Fractographic analysis indicated that fatigue was the dominant mechanism...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003536
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... that are based on fracture profilometry. This is followed by a section describing the methods based on scanning electron microscope fractography. The article also addresses procedures for three-dimensional fracture surface reconstruction. In each case, sufficient methodological details, governing equations...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006760
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Abstract Visual examination, using the unaided eye or a low-power optical magnifier, is typically one of the first steps in a failure investigation. This article presents the guidelines for selecting samples for scanning electron microscope examination and optical metallography and for cleaning...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006770
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... analysis and application in the field. X-RAY SPECTROSCOPY is generally accepted as the most useful ancillary technique that can be added to any scanning electron microscope (SEM), even to the point of being considered a necessity by most operators. Modern x-ray spectrometers allow detection of elements...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001656
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... Abstract Some corrosion processes in the presence of chlorides, for steel embedded in concrete, are described and illustrated with the aid of scanning electron microscope EDXA data. Observations made of failure surfaces of reinforcements removed from the concrete beams after being subjected...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001666
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... revealed by the use of field metallographic preparation techniques and replicated by acetate foil for examination with optical and scanning electron microscopes. It was possible by these techniques to establish the cracking mechanism as stress corrosion possibly related to chloride or sulphate ion steam...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001683
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... was studied optically and with the scanning electron microscope. Cooling systems Heat affected zone Piping Welded joints 304 UNS S30400 Biological corrosion Discovery Investigation Water Study Metallography X-Ray Study Summary of Results Comment Conclusion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.rail.c9001719
EISBN: 978-1-62708-231-0
... spectrographic techniques in conjunction with a scanning electron microscope (SEM). This study describes those metallographic and SEM analysis techniques for determining the mode of failure for a locomotive traction motor by LME. References References 1. Staub B. , Mikroskopische...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001359
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... compressor of an aeroengine was investigated. The origin of the fatigue cracks was associated with a spherical bead of metal sticking to the blade surface in each case. Scanning electron microscope revealed that the cracks initiated at the point of contact of the bead with the blade surface. Energy...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001372
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
.... Abstract Abstract A coupling in a line-shaft vertical turbine pump installed in a dam foundation fractured after a very short time. The coupling material was ASTM A582 416 martensitic stainless steel. Visual, macrofractographic, and scanning electron microscopic examination of the coupling showed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001366
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... in the vicinity of the vane leading edges, and one vane fractured through an airfoil near the hub in the vicinity of the vane trailing edge. Some remaining vanes exhibited radial and transverse cracks in similar locations. Binocular and scanning electron microscope examinations showed that the cracks had been...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001033
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... mu m (1600 mu in.) diam type 304 stainless steel wire screening had been torn and pieces were missing. Scanning electron microscope revealed that the fracture had occurred at wire crossover locations by a fatigue mechanism. The problem was solved by sintering the individual screens into a single unit...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001035
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
.... Fracture surfaces of the failed axle and exemplar fractures obtained from simulation tests were studied using scanning electron microscope. The examination showed that the outer perimeter fracture in the axle was very flat and composed of cleavage and that the interior portion was composed of both cleavage...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001075
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
...) Sulfur 0.030 (max) 0.030 (max) Chromium 16.00–18.00 16.00–18.00 Nickel 10.50–14.00 10.00–14.00 Molybdenum 2.50–3.00 2.00–3.00 Several broken wires were sent for examination. They were cut into lengths for insertion into a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Low-magnification...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001079
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... the actual mechanical properties and to determine the metallurgical cause of the observed indications. Samples were examined in a scanning electron microscope and subjected to chemical analysis and several mechanical property tests, including tensile, Charpy V-notch impact, and fracture toughness...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001089
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
...Abstract Abstract A failed crosshead of an industrial compressor was examined using optical and scanning electron microscope. The crosshead was an ASTM A148 grade 105-85 steel casting. On the basis of the observations reported and available background information, it was concluded...