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scale formation

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001769
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... heat exchanger tubes taken out of service at a gas turbine power station. The corrosive effect of each type of bacteria on mild steel was investigated using electrochemical (polarization and impedance) techniques, and the biogenic calcium scale formations analyzed by XRD. It was shown that the bacteria...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0091291
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
...Abstract Abstract Carbon steel tubes from a boiler feedwater heater feeding a deaerator were treated to control scale formation, but the treatment instead produced more iron oxide. The additional iron oxide reduced the tubing to a totally corroded condition. Investigation showed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001043
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... carbide formations in a martensite matrix and outlining of prior-austenite grains by a network of fine, white lines. These features indicated that the material had been transformed by carburization by the impinging gas. The outer surface exhibited a heavy scale deposit and numerous cracks that originated...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0048702
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... of attack and thickness of the corrosion deposit. 28×. (c) Micrograph showing the intergranular nature of the attack and undercutting of metal particles. Etched with ammonium persulfate. 110× Most copper alloys depend on the formation of a protective oxide scale for corrosion protection. When...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001447
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
..., the formation of low melting point eutectics or corrosion; show a similar appearance when investigated on a macroscopic scale. Conductors (devices) Plate metal Turbogenerators Copper Hydrogen damage and embrittlement This article originally appeared in the issue of “Der Maschinenschaden...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001270
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
...Abstract Abstract An investigation was conducted to determine the factors responsible for the occasional formation of cracks on the parting lines of medium plain carbon and low-alloy medium-carbon steel forgings. The cracks were present on as-forged parts and grew during heat treatment...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001850
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... bulged out zone, ( c ) inner surface of the specimen showing grain boundary oxidation, decarburization and grain coarsening, ( d ) matrix structure shows formation of voids at the grain boundaries, and ( e ) microstructure away from the bulged zone shows banded ferrite–pearlite matrix Scale...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001648
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... of couplings 2 and 4 was similar in surface discoloration and scale formation. Coupling 1, however, was much cleaner in appearance, with minimal scale formation. Coupling 1, as removed after the incident, is shown in Fig. 6 . Comparison of Fig. 4 and 5 with Fig. 6 illustrates the relative cleanness...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0091761
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... to the thinning by erosion-corrosion and scale formation, the stress levels increased from 430 MPa (62 ksi) at the central portion (where the crack occurred) to 550 MPa (80 ksi). From Fig. 2 , it is seen that this change in stress would reduce the time to rupture by a factor of 1000. The columnar grains...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001357
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
..., the process is much more complex, but can be summarized as follows. The Ni-Cr-Al system develops three oxide types: A surface oxide of NiO, with subsoil of Cr 2 O 3 and/or Al 2 O 3 A scale formation of Cr 2 O 3 , with a discontinuous underlying layer of Al 2 O 3 The formation of a thin...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001834
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... thickness can be used to estimate the temperature of an operating tube metal during service. The steamside scale formation of ferritic steel with 1–3% Cr (correlated with the Larson–Miller parameter as reported by Purblaksono et al. [ 14 ] was used to estimate operating temperature. The wall temperature T...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001601
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... and the stringers provided a path for crack propagation and coalescence of the microcracks. Manganese sulfide inclusions frequently served as the primary crack path. Another failure mode observed in flow forming of SAE 4130 steel was the formation of fish scales ( Fig. 8 ). Fish scales were generally observed...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003555
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...Suggested maximum temperatures for various alloys in continuous, isothermal oxidizing atmospheres without excessive scaling Table 1 Suggested maximum temperatures for various alloys in continuous, isothermal oxidizing atmospheres without excessive scaling Alloy designation Temperature...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...Suggested maximum operating temperatures for select alloys in continuous, isothermal oxidizing atmospheres without excessive scaling Table 1 Suggested maximum operating temperatures for select alloys in continuous, isothermal oxidizing atmospheres without excessive scaling Alloy...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006824
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... of protective coatings. Coatings designed for high-temperature oxidation protection typically have significantly higher aluminum content to promote alpha-alumina scale formation. For uncoated components limited by oxidation, increasing life expectancy can often be achieved by the simple application...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001638
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... of the oxide forming elements near the alloy surface interferes with the process of formation of the protective scale. If sufficient sulfur enters the alloy and all immediately available chromium or aluminum is converted to sulfides, then the less stable sulfides of the base metal may form. 6 Under...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... ( 100 − V c − V a ) + V a ( − 4.64 + 2.21 C ) Design factors Alloy procurement Specify surface condition (minimal decarburization and scale) Wide variation in allowable chemistries within grade Results in variations in properties and distortion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001396
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... magnetite scale leading to local corrosion and ultimately to the formation of pits and channels on the bore of the tube, a phenomenon to which the term “caustic grooving” has been applied. An alternative suggestion which has been put forward in an attempt to explain the attack is that the varying thermal...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003517
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., microstructural evaluations, the creep cavitation damage assessment, the oxide-scale-based life prediction, and high-temperature crack growth methods. coating evaluation creep cavitation damage assessment elevated-temperature failure gas turbine blade hardness testing high-temperature crack growth...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001241
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... or wet nitrogen the removal of the carbon oxides may be obstructed by the formation of scale and thus decarburisation will be stopped 1 . So, if in view of its consequences a decarburisation should by all means be avoided, it is not advisable to perform a heat treatment in slightly oxydizing atmospheres...