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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.pulp.c0047615
EISBN: 978-1-62708-230-3
... Abstract After ten years of satisfactory operation, economizer-tube failures occurred in a large black liquor recovery boiler for a paper mill. The economizer contained 1320 finned tubes. Two fins ran longitudinally for most of the tube length and were attached by fillet welding on one side...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c9001720
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... would have no effect on corrosion rate under aerobic conditions that may occur in local areas on the hull. In the part of the ship from which samples for this report were obtained, high temperatures above 1340 deg F did not occur. Hull plate samples from the submerged wreckage are not yet available...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006932
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... dilatometry. Volume changes determined by this method are reported to have an accuracy of 1 to 5 × 10 −5 cm 3 /g (0.6 to 3 × 10 −3 ft 3 /lb). The use of the dilatometer is discussed in Ref 37 , 48 . One researcher measured the isobaric volume recovery in PS samples quenched from a temperature above T...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006766
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... The choice of appropriate analytical techniques is determined by the specific chemical information required, the condition of the sample, and any limitations imposed by interested parties. This article discusses some of the commonly used quantitative chemical analysis techniques for metals. The discussion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001609
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... Abstract Alloy 430 stainless steel tube-to-header welds failed in a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) within one year of commissioning. The HRSG was in a combined cycle, gas-fired, combustion turbine electric power plant. Alloy 430, a 17% Cr ferritic stainless steel, was selected because...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006930
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... ). In this test, a weight is applied to a plunger that is placed on top of a polymer melt sample. The plunger design, as well as the barrel and die design, have been standardized for this procedure. For Method A of this test method, the operator applies a specified load, most often 2.16 kg, to the plunger...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001843
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... an unaffected region on a suspected tin pested sample Fig. 5 EDS spectrum from an affected region on a suspected tin pested sample Examination of the affected, darker areas on the sample was expected to show signs of corrosion attack from an aggressive species (i.e., high oxygen peak due...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006849
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... has been well documented. One advantage of the protocols discussed in this article is the relatively small sample size being characterized. Unfortunately, some of the commonly used test methods for reported mechanical properties involve test specimens (or coupons) that can be both processing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006825
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
..., hotels, restaurants, and office buildings use boilers for generation of steam and/or hot water. Likewise, there are boilers termed as heat-recovery steam generators (HRSGs) and kraft-recovery boilers. As the HRSG name indicates, the waste heat released by the exhaust gases or hot air from combustion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001601
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... anneal. The hardness and percentage thickness reduction associated with each pass are shown in Table 1 . The flow formed tube, after undergoing a total percentage thickness reduction of about 88%, was trimmed, and tensile test samples were taken from a fully formed extra length of the tube as per ASTM...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006933
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... in molecules. Transition from one vibrational state to another is related to absorption or emission of electromagnetic radiation ( Ref 3 ). These vibrations occur at characteristic frequencies, which correspond to functional groups within the molecular structure of the sample. Fourier transform infrared...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003525
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... or emission of electromagnetic radiation ( Ref 3 ). These vibrations occur at characteristic frequencies, revealing the structure of the sample. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy produces a unique spectrum, which is comparable to the fingerprint of the material. It is the principal analytical technique...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... during the roughing process for both a steel sample microalloyed with Nb and one without it. It is clear that the alloying element promotes a smaller grain size and prevents growth after rolling passes. On the other hand, Fig. 2 compares the recrystallization kinetics (amount of recrystallized grains...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006928
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... with metals. If a plastically deformed polymer sample is heated in the absence of external constraints, it will contract toward its original undeformed length. In many polymers, practically 100% recovery of the plastic deformation is possible without ever exceeding the melt temperature. If a plastically...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006931
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... to determine both T g and T m as well as other thermal events. Repeat analysis can be used on a single sample to reveal the effects of thermal or process history on the transition temperatures. The next step is to determine the molecular weight (MW) and/or molecular weight distribution (MWD...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006870
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... length (>100%) and return very close to their original shape. Metals and thermoplastics typically show elongations of <50% with permanent deformation and little or no recovery of their original dimensions. When deformed in compression mode, elastomers can also maintain a tendency to recover...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001559
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... Abstract One inch diam Type 304 stainless steel piping was designed to carry containment atmosphere samples to an analyzer to monitor hydrogen and oxygen levels during operational and the design basis accident conditions that are postulated to occur in a boiling water reactor. Only one of six...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003528
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... in a component or assembly. The article describes the steps required to calibrate instrumentation and to validate stress measurement results. It presents a practical approach to sample selection and specimen preparation, measurement location selection, and measurement depth selection, as well as an outline...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006768
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... to premature failures. The article presents a practical approach to sample selection and specimen preparation, measurement location selection, and measurement depth selection; measurement validation is outlined as well. A number of case studies and examples are cited. The article also briefly summarizes...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001570
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... of the clad tubesheet. Failed Tube-to-Tubesheet Joint The sectional view of a failed tube-to-tubesheet joint is shown in Figure 1 . The sample was taken from a titanium clad steel tubesheet that was welded to the steel shell of a tubular heat exchanger. The tube material is the most widely used ASTM...