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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006769
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... technology and operating principles of basic systems of SEM. The basic systems covered include the electron optical column, signal detection and display equipment, and the vacuum system. The processes involved in the preparation of samples for observation using an SEM are described, and the application...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001632
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... to analysis of the crack, some of the irradiated material from the window was used to measure mechanical properties. Hot cell techniques for preparation of samples and testing were developed to determine true operating conditions of radiation, strain, and temperature. Mechanical tests Neutrons Protons...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003533
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... the development of SEM technology and describes the operation of basic systems in an SEM, including the electron optical column, signal detection and display equipment, and vacuum system. It discusses the preparation of samples for observation using an SEM and describes the application of SEM in fractography...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006757
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... discusses the processes involved in visual or macroscopic examination of damaged material; the interpretation of fracture features, corrosion, and wear damage features; and the analysis of base material composition. It covers the processes involved in the selection of metallurgical samples, the preparation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006771
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... of samples that can be analyzed and the special sample-handling procedures that must be implemented when preparing to do failure analysis using these surface-sensitive techniques. Data obtained from different material defects are presented for each of the techniques. The examples presented highlight...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003528
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... XRD can be applied to the characterization of residual stresses in a component or assembly. The article describes the steps required to calibrate instrumentation and to validate stress measurement results. It presents a practical approach to sample selection and specimen preparation, measurement...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006768
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... and to the subsequent evaluation of corrective actions that alter the residual-stress state of a component for the purposes of preventing, minimizing, or eradicating the contribution of residual stress to premature failures. The article presents a practical approach to sample selection and specimen preparation...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0091318
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... the specified procedure for chemical cleaning of the tanks in preparation for potable water storage. The sodium hypochlorite sterilizing solution used was three times the prescribed strength, and the process exposed the bottom of the tanks to hypochlorite solution that had collected near the outlet...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c9001426
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
... of the sample obtained, the failure in service had resulted from fracture of one of the links in the plane of the weld. Six of the other links in the vicinity showed cracks in the welds in various stages of development. Microscope examination showed a crack in an early stage of development and also from...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001655
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... drained and filled with nitric acid in preparation for service. Three weeks later the two acid tanks were found to be leaking from the bottom. Samples from the spent solvent tank revealed that pitting was located in a depressed area near a suction hole, beneath a black residue. It was concluded...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006766
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... judgment while selecting representative analytical specimen locations and during the preparation of the specimen, to preserve the chemical integrity of the sample material. Proper techniques should be practiced during the removal of an analytical sample, because overheating during sample removal can...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.homegoods.c9001622
EISBN: 978-1-62708-222-8
... frequencies and absorb infrared radiation at corresponding frequencies. Because of this, different molecules will generate distinct patterns of absorption, allowing characterization and identification. This technique does not require special sample preparation or the use of a vacuum chamber, and thus, samples...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006770
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... composition variations at areas of interest on a sample surface or prepared specimen. Figure 13 shows a line scan on a metallographically prepared section of a printed circuit board with multiple failed solder connections. The line scans indicate a phosphorus-rich zone along the solder interface...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001626
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... are required and multiple analytical techniques must be applied. The extent of analysis that is conducted in a discoloration characterization study is virtually always limited by time and cost constraints. Techniques that require special sample preparation, as well as techniques that are lengthy to run...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001628
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... element have wavelengths or energy levels characteristic of that element, identifying the approximate concentration of each major element in the sample. The portable instrumentation is designed for rapid direct analysis without extensive surface preparation. The purpose of performing these analyses...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001589
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... was washed out during the sample preparation. In order to pin down the source of the defect, the defect side of the HPEN deposit foil was separated by first stripping nickel from the opposite side of the disk substrate in 50% by volume HNO 3 . The exposed aluminum alloy substrate was then dissolved...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006759
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... to isolate an area of interest with little sample preparation. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy may show contamination, corrosion products, or other unwanted surface residue and is more useful with lighter elements than EDS or WDS, making it a promising technique. This article provides a toolbox...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001623
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... be applied. The extent of analysis that is conducted in a discoloration characterization study is virtually always limited by time and cost constraints. Techniques that require special sample preparation, as well as techniques that are lengthy to run or interpret, have a tendency to be expensive and even...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001804
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... to standard preparation [ 16 , 17 ]: cutting, mounting, grinding (100–600 mesh), polishing (diamond paste: particles with 6, 3, and 1 lm grain size) and etching (solution with 10 ml acetic acid, 10 ml nitric acid, 15 ml hydrochloric acid, and 5 drops of glycerin for about 3 min). Samples of the same...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c9001624
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
... study is virtually always limited by time and cost constraints. Techniques that require special sample preparation, as well as techniques that are lengthy to run or interpret, have a tendency to be expensive and even cost prohibitive in some instances. Therefore, an understanding of the advantages...