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rough polishing

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c0092155
EISBN: 978-1-62708-221-1
...Abstract Abstract Component slippage in the left-side final drive train of a tracked military vehicle was detected after the vehicle had been driven 13,700 km (8500 miles) in combined highway and rough-terrain service. The slipping was traced to the mating surfaces of the final drive gear...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001683
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... by an attached tail, was chosen for close study. The wall of the pit was generally rough and spongy in appearance; see Figure 13 . Fig. 12 Photomacrograph of polished stainless steel weld sample attacked by MIC. Pit “a” was chosen for study. It is entirely in the weld filler zone. Magnification ∼ 4...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003532
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract This article provides a discussion on the metallographic techniques used for failure analysis, and on fracture examination in materials, with illustrations. It discusses various metallographic specimen preparation techniques, namely, sectioning, mounting, grinding, polishing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006765
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... 13 ), relief (height differences between different constituents, or between holes and constituents) ( Fig. 14 ), or embedding ( Fig. 15 ). Polishing usually is conducted in several stages. Rough polishing is conducted with 9, 6, and/or 3 μm diamond abrasives charged onto napless or low-nap cloths...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c9001704
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
... abrasive paper, rough-polished with 6 micron diamond, then final polished using a 0.3 micron aluminum oxide slurry. The sample was electrolytically etched in a 10 percent oxalic acid solution by applying a voltage of 4V for approximately 30 seconds. The polished cross-section is shown under both low...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001667
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... are obtained. In general, the equipment needed to perform an on-site metallographic analysis must be able to perform the following functions: (1) rough and fine grinding, (2) coarse and final polishing, (3) etching, (4) microscopic examination; and, (5) documentation of observed microstructural characteristics...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001108
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... and rough polishing, the final polishing was carefully undertaken down to 1 µm diamond paste. No alumina polishing was used, because experience has shown that it tends to accentuate the size of the voids. The nature of the nonetched transverse section of the curved part of the tubing is shown in Fig. 3...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001600
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... to premature failure, and (2) to determine whether the part had been aged properly. The samples were rough polished utilizing silicon carbide papers of increasing grit number, followed by fine polishing consisting of diamond paste and alumina. The samples were examined in the as-polished condition. No gross...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001583
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... retention, and rough polished with silicon carbide papers ranging in grit from 180 to 1200. The samples were subsequently fine polished utilizing 1 micron diamond suspension, followed by 0.05 micron colloidal silica. The structure of the samples was consistent with vacuum induction plus consumable electrode...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003533
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... is such that as the angle between the beam and the surface increases, secondary emission increases ( Fig. 4a ). Thus, secondary electrons are ideal for imaging rough samples (such as fracture surfaces), where the angle between the beam and the surface is constantly varying. For a smoothly polished sample, where the angle...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001825
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... the junction with the header was mounted and metallographically prepared. The prepared sections were examined as polished and after etching electrolytically in 10% oxalic acid. The examination was performed using light microscopy, and micrographs of representative microstructures were taken. Visual...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0089459
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... specifications. The fractures were revealed to be in areas of the transition regions that had been rough ground to remove flash along the parting line. The presence of beach marks, indicating fatigue failure, was revealed by examination. The fracture origin was confirmed by the location and curvature of beach...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001778
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... and polished by conventional metallographic techniques. The polished samples were etched in 2% nital solution (2 mL HNO 3 in 98 mL ethyl alcohol). Unetched and etched samples were examined to observe the crack profile and microstructural constituents. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of the broken wires...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0047830
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... fracture cheek) was determined. Indication of fatigue failure was revealed by visual examination of the fracture surfaces. Rough grooves from hot trimming of the flash were visible on the surface of the cheeks. The outer face of one cheek of the throw on the forging contained shallow surface folds...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c0091394
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... of pipe, neither very rough nor smooth. The relative surface area of the cathode to anode is large because of the expanse of the pipe involved. Corrosion by pitting starts, the dense acid puddles by gravity over a relatively wide area, and the remainder of the pipe section acts as a cathode. The pit...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006769
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... is such that as the angle between the beam and the surface increases, secondary emission increases ( Fig. 4a ). Thus, secondary electrons are ideal for imaging rough samples (e.g., fracture surfaces), where the angle between the beam and the surface is constantly varying. For a smoothly polished sample, where the angle...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.homegoods.c9001610
EISBN: 978-1-62708-222-8
.... and Burstein G.T. : “The Generation of Surface Roughness During Slurry Erosion-Corrosion and its Effect on the Pitting Potential,” Corros. Sci. , 1996 , 38 ( 12 ), pp. 2111 – 20 . 16. Meijer C. , Bredberg M. , Fischer T. , and Vidströ L. : “Ear Piercing and Nickel...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c0048077
EISBN: 978-1-62708-221-1
....a0003544 Magnetic-particle inspection of the shaft showed a crack around the entire circumference at the change in section ( Fig. 1 ). The fillet at the change of section where the crack was located was well polished and generally free of rough-machining marks. However, the crack coincided...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c9001547
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... at the base of an end hook, is shown in Fig. 2 as many radial cracks on the end coil that forms the base of the end hook. Similar damage was found on the opposite end hook of the same spring. Fig. 1 Top Left — Polished cross section of two adjacent coils. Typically, exposed surface is rough, while...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.machtools.c9001183
EISBN: 978-1-62708-223-5
... polished and etched first with Nital and subsequently with 1:10 sodium hydroxide, As can be seen from Figs. 1 , the slivers consisted of a core that was etched by Nital, and a metallic case that was not etched by Nital, but was dissolved by sodium hydroxide. Under the microscope the core showed...