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roll forming

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.machtools.c0047840
EISBN: 978-1-62708-223-5
... Abstract The A2 tool steel mandrel, part of a rolling tool used for mechanically joining two tubes was fractured after making five rolled joints. A 6.4 mm diam hole was drilled by EDM through the square end of the hardened mandrel due to difficulty was experienced in withdrawing the tool...
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Published: 01 December 2019
Fig. 11 SEM of the fracture surface of the inlet nozzle (formed from rolled plate) showing intergranular fracture through elongated grain structure, with delaminations normal to the main fracture surface More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001378
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... boss. The exact location of a cracked thread would depend on how far the stud bolt had been inserted into the die block (see Fig. 1 ). The threads had been cut by turning on a lathe, rather than by roll forming. Rolled threads would have possessed a better surface finish and would have greatly...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001240
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... Abstract A heat exchanger made of a pipe in which oil was heated from the outside from approximately 90 deg C to 170 deg C, by superheated steam of about 8 to 10 atmospheres had developed a leak at the rolled joint of the pipe and pipe bottom. The pipes were supposed to be made from St 35.29...
Image
Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 2 (a) A magnetite coating on hot rolled sheet, with fresh rust breaking through; (b) Hot rolled surface, about 60% covered with fresh rust; (c) Hot rolled steel, with all the original magnetite lost. Rust is beginning to darken where arrowed, to form hematite. More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001712
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... was observed in the form of non-aligned voids. Near surface voids were also observed, indicating likely chromium depletion. No nitride needles or plates were observed to be present. Hardness A hardness profile was determined for the roll samples 1 D and 3D. These profiles are shown in Figure 2...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001849
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... steel) UNS T20813 Introduction and Background Information Work rolls used for guiding, rolling, and straightening of metal products (flats, bars, profiles, etc.) are widely used in the metal-forming industry. Metal-working rolls are primarily manufactured from forged or cast steel or cast iron...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c9001485
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... in a papermaking machine. Cracks and Fractures Cracking of a major order in races and rolling elements takes several forms and is due to a number of causes. Although it can result from fatigue, the mechanism differs from the very localised fatigue cracking which causes pitting and flaking...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006835
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... also occur. Subsurface flaws often (but not always) originate from the as-cast ingot due to shrinkage, voids, and porosity that form during solidification. Figure 1 illustrates how rolled bar may contain porosity and pipe imperfections carried over from the cast ingot. These imperfections can serve...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001682
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... fatigue cracks in a bellows convolute. One such crack was recently shown to have initiated from a weld heat-affected zone liquation microcrack. The crack, initially open to the outer surface of the rolled and seam welded cylindrical bellows section, was closed when cold forming of the convolutes placed...
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 5 Waves of detachment when an elastomer is slid against a hard and smooth surface. The rubber moves forward in the form of ripples of wave on its contact surface with a smooth and hard counterface. These so-called waves of detachment can produce wear in the form of rolls of detached More
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Published: 15 May 2022
Fig. 4 Waves of detachment when an elastomer is slid against a hard and smooth surface. The rubber moves forward in the form of ripples of wave on its contact surface with a smooth and hard counterface. These so-called waves of detachment can produce wear in the form of rolls of detached More
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003507
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Longitudinal sections of two types of ingots showing typical pipe and porosity. When the ingots are rolled into bars, these flaws become elongated throughout the center of the bars. Metalforming and fabrication of wrought forms also involve other manufacturing operations, such as electroplating, heat...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001691
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... are shown at the edge of the chamber. Water connection transition assemblies were fabricated with 3003 aluminum and are shown in Figure 2 . Fig. 1 The APS storage ring vacuum chamber. Three small round cooling holes are seen here. Fig. 2 Transition assemblies made from 3003 aluminum roll...
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Published: 15 January 2021
Fig. 53 Two views of white-etching deformation bands, termed butterflies, that formed at a growing fatigue crack in a forged, hardened alloy steel mill roll. The crack would have led to spalling in later service. These white-etching zones form from the original tempered martensite due More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001245
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... Abstract A working roll of 210 mm diam and 500 mm face length was examined because of shell-shaped fractures. The roll consisted of Fe-0.83C-1.6Cr steel. The chromium content was low for a roll of this diam. The crack origin was located about 10 mm under the roil face. Surface hardness (HV1...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006792
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... surface hardness and compressive residual stresses. Hybrid Bearings Steel rolling elements may be replaced with ceramic (silicon nitride or zirconium oxide) rolling elements to form a combination called a hybrid bearing ( Ref 119 – 127 ). Under ideal conditions, hybrid bearings show lower RCF life...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001773
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... is composed of an outer shell and an internal component known as a spiral element. A conceptual sketch of a cross section of the SHE is shown in Fig. 2 . The spiral element is constructed of two parallel plates rolled into the shape of a spiral and separated from each other so as to form an annular passage...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001810
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... by overload failure, acid etching, or corrosion. Jamming of such hard particles between rolling elements and raceways may cause the inner ring to turn on the shaft or the outer ring to turn in the housing. Corrosive Fluids Water, acid, or other corrosive fluids, including corrosives formed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0059924
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... Abstract The large steel ring produced for a nuclear application from a billet of 8822 steel was inspected. The large billet was first forged into a doughnut preform in a large press, and then formed into the ring by ring rolling. A straight-beam ultrasonic inspection was instituted...