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riser size

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001639
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... of the 46 year old, inactive, 1.03 million gallon waste storage tank. A steerable, magnetic wheel wall crawler was inserted into the annular space through small (6 in., or 150 mm, diam) holes/risers in the tank top. The crawler carried the equipment used to simultaneously collect data with up to four UT...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001815
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... the sealed compressor chamber. A unique combination of applied stress, residual stress, stress riser, and grain size helped isolate the failure mechanism to a single production lot of material. fastening pin corrosion stress concentration copper alloys grain size variations scanning electron...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001675
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... of reaction from within the reformer tubes, and the riser, through which the product passes once more within the radiation zone. The manifold lies horizontally, with the riser situated centrally in a vertical position, there being forty-four reformer tubes disposed symetrically, and welded to the manifold...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c0089551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
... of the casting. The mass of a feeder-riser system located near the tear retarded cooling in this region, creating a hot spot. This supported the conclusion that the tear causing the fracture of the axle housing was formed during solidification by hindered contraction and was enlarged in service by fatigue...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001074
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... for sequential polishing and metallographic observations to determine the size of the cavities. Four randomly selected numbers of unmachined castings obtained from the same supplier were used for radiography to assess the location of shrinkage cavities. Cut portions containing the defect locations from...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001738
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... (typically made of HK40 or HP40+Nb) and flows down through each tube and is collected in a bottom manifold. The partially reformed gases contain hydrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, methane and steam. Then the gases flow towards the riser (typically made of HP40+Nb or Supertherm), and from...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001375
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... at the outer edge of the seating surface. Gray iron is notch sensitive and can easily fail at stress risers such as sharp corners. Fig. 5 View of removed section above cavity adjacent to drain. Arrow indicates sharp machined corner and outer diameter of seating surface. Figure 6 represents...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006831
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
..., gating and risering, melting and ladle practice, pouring technique, and heat treatment, that must be controlled to produce sound castings requires both a thorough understanding of the processes used and strict engineering supervision. The price of a casting often reflects the cost of such efforts...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001083
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... size and number of shrinkage voids. Figure 4 shows a through-wall void that was typical in the base plate of both impellers. As stated earlier ( Table 1 ), no through-wall pockmarks were visually observed on impeller 4; however, metallography showed the presence of voids that were too small to see...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003508
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... is insufficient to feed the shrinkage occurring in the thick section. The shape, location, and size of the risers govern the degree to which they feed the casting. Small errors in designing the risers often cause great differences in the results. Gating can often affect the efficiency of a riser. A riser must...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001594
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... rates, which means cracks extend from a detectable size to a through-wall crack in a relatively short time. When fatigue cracks grow large enough to be visible to NDE, it is likely that the component is near the end of its useful life. TU Electric has determined that an inspection program designed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001819
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... under static loading. The main factors that influence fatigue failure are the range of variation of applied stresses, the number of cycles, stress risers, corrosion, temperature, residual stresses, and combined stresses. According to Fernandes and Castro [ 10 ], fatigue is a local, progressive...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001148
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... pathway for carbon steel (usually); Abundant branching (usually); Multiple surface initiation sites (usually); Pronounced deep crevices or secondary cracking; Corrosion product on fracture surface; Crack origin at corrosion pit or other stress riser. The grain size of the tempered...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.9781627083294
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003516
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... for many different combinations of geometry and applied loading ( Ref 15 ). For a flat plate with a small edge crack and infinite width, β = 1. For a flat plate with a finite but large width relative to the size of the edge crack, β = 1.12. Not all β solutions are exact, however. For a flat plate...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001569
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... intensification and significantly lower the overall stress necessary for fatigue to occur. Rupture and reformation of protective oxide films may also act as a stress riser or promote further localized oxidation or corrosion which can then become self perpetuating. Case Histories Water Wall/Lower Furnace...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003538
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Holman, University of Tennessee In materials containing a dual distribution of particle sizes (for example, MnS inclusions and spheroidal carbides in a quenched and tempered steel), a dual-dimple size is often seen on the fracture surface. In this case, the MnS inclusions are larger than...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006775
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... particle shows multiple cracks and shattering. Courtesy of R. Holman, University of Tennessee In materials containing a dual distribution of particle sizes (for example, MnS inclusions and spheroidal carbides in a quenched and tempered steel), a dual-dimple size is often seen on the fracture surface...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006835
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... such as bar, plate, tube, sheet, and wire are worked from ingot or other cast forms) or secondary metalworking (where mill products are further formed into finished products by hot forging, cold forging, drawing, extrusion, straightening, sizing, etc.). These metalworking operations have a twofold purpose...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003537
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...; intergranular fracture in large grain size Fracture surface roughness Increase in surface roughness in direction of crack growth (may be affected in bending by compressive stressed region when crack moves into this region) Smooth region plus rough region in direction of growth—cyclic loading...