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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006775
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... copper (99.9998%) and notched high-strain-rate-loaded specimens to prevent necking ( Ref 39 ). Results confirm the premise that the fracture mechanism is by void nucleation, even when no particles can be detected in the voids. Results also indicate that when grain boundaries are present, fracture...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003538
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... specimens were used in order to prevent necking ( Ref 39 ). The results have apparently confirmed the premise that the fracture mechanisms is by void nucleation, even when no particles can be detected in the voids. These results indicate that when grain boundaries are present, fracture initiates...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003537
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... embrittlement. Macroscale fractographic features Table 1 Macroscale fractographic features Mark/Indication Implication Visible distortion Plastic deformation exceeded yield strength and may indicate instability (necking, buckling) or post-failure damage Visible nicks or gouges Possible...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006831
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
..., gating and risering, melting and ladle practice, pouring technique, and heat treatment, that must be controlled to produce sound castings requires both a thorough understanding of the processes used and strict engineering supervision. The price of a casting often reflects the cost of such efforts...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003541
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Fig. 3 Typical creep and creep rupture behavior of nonductile, or brittle, polymers Cavitation and microvoid formation in polymers differs from that in metals. Cavities form in the necked region of metals after the onset of necking, because the geometry changes induce local triaxial stress...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006865
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
.... Cavities form in the necked region of metals after the onset of necking because the geometry changes induce local triaxial stress components from the tensile load. The cavities grow and, through microvoid coalescence, result in a crack that soon causes fracture. Such cavitation processes in metals...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003508
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... interfere with the ability of the foundry to use the best techniques to produce reliable castings. Defect-free castings can be produced at a price. The multitude of process variables, such as molding mediums, binder, gating and risering, melting and ladle practice, pouring technique, and heat treatment...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006778
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... to 50× (fracture surface) • Necking or distortion in direction consistent with applied loads • Dull, fibrous fracture • Shear lips • Little or no distortion • Flat fracture • Bright or coarse texture, crystalline, grainy • Rays or chevrons point to origin • Flat progressive zone with beach marks...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.9781627083294
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003507
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... through an ingot showing extensive centerline shrinkage Piping can be minimized by pouring ingots with the big end up, providing risers in the ingot top, and applying sufficient hot-top material (insulating refractories or exothermic materials) immediately after pouring. These techniques extend...