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retained austenite

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.machtools.c0047307
EISBN: 978-1-62708-223-5
... to 650 HRB. The microstructure consisted of eutectic chromium carbides (Cr7C3) in a matrix of retained austenite and martensite intermingled with secondary carbides. Analysis (visual inspection and 500x view of sections etched with Marble's reagent) supported the conclusion that the low hardness resulted...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0092148
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... caused unstable retained austenite in the failed cylinder to transform to martensite. The increase in volume resulted in sufficient size distortion to cause interference between the cylinder and the spool, seizing, and loss of flow control. The failed parts had been carburized in a process in which...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0046044
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
.... Chemical analysis of the cracked metal showed a slightly higher level of carbon than in the component that did not crack. X-ray diffraction studies of material from the fractured dome showed a very low level of retained austenite, and chemical analysis showed a slightly higher content of carbon...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001535
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... Limited. Microstructural issues influencing roll quality, such as characteristics of carbides, tempered martensite, retained austenite, etc., have been extensively studied through optical and scanning electron microscopy, electron-probe microanalysis, image analysis, and x-ray diffractometry...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0047187
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... on the side of the teeth that came into contact with the opposing gear during engagement. The microstructure at the periphery of a worn tooth at its unworn side consisted of coarse acicular martensite with a large percentage of retained austenite. Pinion Failure: The teeth of the pinion exhibited severe...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0090947
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... of retained austenite in the hardened case layer likely contributed to the failure. Carburizing Retained austenite Valve seats 11L17 UNS G11170 Intergranular fracture Brittle fracture Valve seats fractured during testing and during service. The seats were machined from grade 11L17 steel...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.machtools.c0047964
EISBN: 978-1-62708-223-5
..., the spindle of the grinding machine was reconditioned to eliminate the undulations and retained austenite was minimized by careful heat treatment. Bevel gears Cracks Gear boxes Magnetic particle testing Spalling Surface grinding 8620 UNS G86200 Rolling-contact wear The service life...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001811
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... to be homogenous and had no banded structure. However, x-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the presence of up to 6% retained austenite which likely caused the tube to buckle during the 910 °C heat treating procedure. tube buckling retained austenite bainitic steel distortion x-ray diffraction analysis...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c9001209
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
... manufactured from an unkilled carbon-deficient steel, and were case hardened to a depth of 0.8 to 0.9 mm. The peripheral structure at the places not showing wear consisted of coarse acicular martensite with a high percentage of retained austenite. The links therefore were strongly overheated, probably directly...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003510
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... microstructure phase transformations quenching quench-process design residual stress retained austenite steel stress tempering HEAT TREATING—of all the various steel processing methods—has the greatest overall impact on control of microstructure, properties, residual stresses, and dimensional...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001532
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
...) at 500× magnification. Microstructural examinations were also carried out on natal-etched specimens (2 mL concentrated HNO 3 in 98 mL ethyl alcohol) of failed rolls to observe characteristics of matrix phases such as martensite, retained austenite, and carbides. Microhardness [Vickers pyramid number...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001814
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... with 10% aqueous nitric acid revealed a white-etching appearance at the teeth. 2×. (c) Micrograph showing a surface layer of as-quenched martensite (from the EDM operation) and an overaustenitized matrix structure (unstable retained austenite and coarse plate martensite). Etched with 3% nital. 420...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001269
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... will cause localized melting and grain coarsening, although no such overheating was observed. Overheating and poor quenching may result in retained austenite. Careful heat treatments include sub-zero treatments to transform retained austenite to martensite prior to final double tempering. Otherwise...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.rail.c9001665
EISBN: 978-1-62708-231-0
...Abstract Abstract Following a freight train derailment, part of a fractured side frame was retained for study because a portion of its fracture surface exhibited a rock candy appearance and black scale. It was suspected of having failed, thereby precipitating the derailment. Metallography...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0045988
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... closest to one edge of the pin retainer. Coarse grain size (ASTM 2 to 3) was responsible for the brittle fracture. Excessively high temperature during austenitizing caused the large grain size. The fact that the hardness of the strap that failed was lower than the specified hardness of 30 to 35 HRC...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001214
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... and to a depth of 1.5 mm the case layer was coarse-acicular martensite and contained considerable amounts of retained austenite ( Fig. 4 ). Therefore the sleeve was overheated and quenched probably directly from case. Fig. 1 Transverse section through cracked part of sleeve etch: 5% Nital. 1 × Fig...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c0091893
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
.... Dimensions given in inches The inner and outer rings were made of seamless cold-drawn 52100 steel tubing, the balls were forged from 52100 steel, and the retainer was stamped from 1008 steel strip. The inner ring, outer ring, and balls were austenitized at 845°C (about 1550°F), oil quenched...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001670
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... as the temperature increases between AT D and ST D . Reverted austenite remains as retained austenite upon cooling to room temperature (HRC 30). The two types of martensite (unaged and overaged) and retained austenite are microscopic in size, thus the hardness readings represent some form of average of the phases...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c0065827
EISBN: 978-1-62708-221-1
... temperature) impact strengths of 3 to 5 ft · lbf (4 to 6.8 J), hardnesses from 56 to 59 HRC, and retained austenite contents varying from a trace to 8% in failed knives. The alloy design program was established to produce a lower-cost composition (based on the cost to add various alloying elements...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001134
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... ( Fig. 10 ) displayed a structure of martensite and retained austenite. The microstructure near the second fracture (opposite the weld joint; Fig. 11 ) was tempered martensite. Fig. 10 Microstructure near weld joint. Structure of martensite and retained austenite. 5% nital etch. 1000...