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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001391
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... Abstract Several surface-mount chip resistor assemblies failed during monthly thermal shock testing and in the field. The resistor exhibited a failure mode characterized by a rise in resistance out of tolerance for the system. Representative samples from each step in the manufacturing process...
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Published: 01 December 1993
Fig. 2 Group 1 (left) and Group 2 resistors. The group 2 resistor had been exposed to the heat of soldering for 90 s. Note the dark appearance of the top polymer coating. This is due to the pyrolysis, or breakdown, of the epoxy coating. 19.25× More
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Published: 01 December 1993
Fig. 8 An interesting detail on the group 1 resistors was the presence of an amorphous dark-appearing phase dotting the interface between the cermet metallization and the thick-film polymer conductive ink. Fourier transform infrared analysis determined that this dark-appearing phase More
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Published: 01 December 1993
Fig. 3 Delaminated group 8 resistor that exhibited a low pushoff strength. Note the puckered appearance of the gold polymer coating at the left termination. This was caused by the heat of soldering exceeding the T g of the epoxy. 21.6× More
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Published: 01 December 1993
Fig. 4 SEM micrograph of a resistor with a partially delaminated termination. The light-appeahng portion is the lead-tin alloy on the surface of the termination. The dark-appearing area beneath the lead-tin alloy is exposed alumina. More
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Published: 01 December 1993
Fig. 11 SEM micrograph of a group 2 resistor termination. Areas of interest are as follows: area 1 is the alumina substrata area 2 is the cermet thick-film metallization; area 3 is the polymer thick-film ink; area 4 is the nickel barrier layer; and area 5 is the lead-tin surface coa ting More
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Published: 01 December 1993
Fig. 12 Interface on a group 3 resistor. Note the increased thickness at the critical interface. This was caused by the forces exerted by the expansion and contraction of the silver carrier plate during soldering. The polymer contamination (most likely resin separation from the epoxy thick More
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Published: 01 December 1993
Fig. 6 Higher-magnification examination of the surface of the delaminated portion of the resistor termination. Note the absence of evidence of any type of fracture or tearing on the surface. More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0006899
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
.... The bolts (cathodes) were connected to the negative terminal of a battery through a current-limiting resistor against a platinum anode and cathodically charged with hydrogen. The time to failure was measured. All type 410 stainless steel bolts were quenched from 1010 to 65 °C (1850 to 150 °F) in oil...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003501
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Shafts, connecting rods, gears  Electricity Wires, lightbulb elements, resistors Provide a barrier (for example: reflect, cover, enclose, or protect)  Light Walls, plugs, caps  Heat Thermal insulators, thermal reflecting surfaces  Electricity Electrical insulators, magnetic shields...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006800
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... Shafts, connecting rods, gears  Electricity Wires, lightbulb elements, resistors Provide a barrier (for example, reflect, cover, enclose, or protect)  Light Walls, plugs, caps  Heat Thermal insulators, thermal reflecting surfaces  Electricity Electrical insulators, magnetic shields...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006764
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2