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residual strength

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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 2 Example of a typical failure assessment diagram. FAP, failure assessment point; FAC, failure assessment curve; σ f , flow strength, average of yield and tensile strengths; σ y , yield strength; solid line, without residual stress; dashed line, with residual stress More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001112
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
...-beam split catastrophically along the entire length through the web. Detailed investigation revealed segregation of high levels of carbon, sulfur and phosphorus in the middle of the web and high residual stresses attributed to rolling during fabrication. Flame cutting caused a change...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0047332
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
..., porous, and of low mechanical strength. Also, there were areas in which severe erosion had occurred ( Fig. 1a ). Macrographs of sections through the pump shell and a vane are shown in Fig. 1(b) and 1(c) . The darker areas on both photographs represent graphitic residue and corrosion products that were...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c9001200
EISBN: 978-1-62708-221-1
... of the residual melt. In this case, it was promoted by fast cooling of the thin wall and had comparatively low strength. The fracture formation in the cylinder blocks was ascribed primarily to casting stresses. They could be alleviated by better filleting of the transition cross sections. The fracture...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.pulp.c0047447
EISBN: 978-1-62708-230-3
... with high residual stresses would always be susceptible to SCC. Redesign to lower stresses was essential. In addition, it was recommended that a change to a high-strength duplex stainless steel with its higher strength and greater resistance to chlorides would be helpful. Finally, the part must...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003573
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... in design computations. The reason for using such low fractions of yield (or ultimate) strength is to allow for such factors as possible errors in computational assumptions, accidental overload, introduction of residual stress during processing, temperature effects, variations in material quality (including...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006797
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... THIS VOLUME is organized according to four general categories of failure: fracture, corrosion, wear, and the subject of this article, distortion. One reason metals are so widely used as engineering materials is that they have high strength but also generally have the capability to respond to load (stress...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001377
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... martensitic structure characteristic of this material for the required strength. Significant grain size variations were observed between bolts supplied by the two vendors ( Fig, 13 and 14 ). However, owing to the dominating factor of residual stress, definite conclusions with regard to the effect of grain...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001407
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... to a temperature of 130 deg C (266 deg F). Magnetic crack detection revealed circumferential crack-like indications situated a short distance from the butt weld. Cracking originated on the bore surfaces of the tube and was of an intergranular nature reminiscent of caustic cracking in steam boilers. The strength...
Image
Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 3 Schematic of gradients in fatigue initiation driving force (shown as total stress) and fatigue resistance (fatigue strength) that can result in subsurface initiation in a case-hardened component. Total stress includes applied plus residual stress. The surface is located at the left More
Image
Published: 15 January 2021
Fig. 3 Schematic of gradients in fatigue initiation driving force (shown as total stress) and fatigue resistance (fatigue strength) that can result in subsurface initiation in a case-hardened component. Total stress includes applied plus residual stress. The surface is located at the left More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001560
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... may have occurred. A study was made for stress-corrosion cracking susceptibility of 4340 steel in a paste made of the residues collected from used breech chambers. The constant extension rate test (CERT) technique was employed and SCC susceptibility was demonstrated. The residues, which contained both...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0089633
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... 100x magnification) supported the conclusion that the crack initiated at the inner edge of a lubrication hole and had propagated toward both the threaded and flange ends of the casting. An appreciable residual-stress concentration must have been present and caused propagation of the crack. The residual...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001303
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... of gross overload. Use of an alloy with a much higher yield strength and improvement in design were recommended. Chain drives Cracking Motor vehicles Sand castings UNS A14130 A413.0 LM6M (Other, general, or unspecified) fracture Background A sprocket drive wheel in a tracked all...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001099
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... Abstract Uncoated high-strength alloy steel cap screws retaining a cast aluminum (356.0) diffuser assembly in a centrifugal refrigerant compressor failed in a brittle manner a short time after the system was placed in operation. Evidence obtained during the failure analysis indicated...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006767
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... a point or volume in which the actual stress exceeds the strength of the material. Additionally, the microstructure may vary from location to location. On the other hand, if failure occurs in an area of high stress, overload may also be suspected. Of course, the possibility of improper design cannot...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001197
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... and the graphite in part showed a granular formation, so that strength of the material was low. In a second crankcase with the same crack formation the structure in the thick-wailed part was better. But it also showed granular graphite in the ferritic matrix in the thin-walled part between the dendrites...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003530
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... not have been used as intended. It may have suffered mechanical or environmental damage prior to use or the presence of a large material flaw may have predisposed it to failure by creating a point or volume in which the actual stress exceeds the strength of the material. Additionally, the microstructure...
Image
Published: 30 August 2021
Fig. 6 Surface layer microstructure generated during low-stress and abusive grinding of AISI 4340 steel. (a) Surface layers were not altered during low-stress grinding. (b) White layer formed during abusive grinding. (c) Plot of microhardness alterations. (d) Plot of residual stress. (e) Plot More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006779
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... with an adequate combination of strength and toughness, optimized surface finish, favorable surface treatment, mild notches and soft stiffness changes, compressive (residual) stresses, and the absence of a detrimental environment. Care should be taken in applying Eq 10 , because an increase of the static...