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residual strain

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0048850
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... normally or nearly so to the main hoop stress direction. Residual-stress measurements were made using a hole-drilling technique and strain gage rosettes. Large tensile axial residual stresses were measured at nearly every location investigated with a large residual hoop stress was found for locations...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001738
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
..., the oxidation-cracks stopped. To determine the residual creep life of the sound (non-cracked) bottom manifold material, iso-stress creep tests were performed. It was found that tertiary creep started at 7% strain. The time-to-rupture was greater than 100,000 h. It was concluded that the bottom manifold...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0047144
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... Abstract During autofrettage of a thick-wall steel pressure vessel, a crack developed through the wall of the component. Certain forged pressure vessels are subjected to autofrettage during their manufacture to induce residual compressive stresses at locations where fatigue cracks may initiate...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006932
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... are often formed from layers of unidirectional plies, the direction of the plies being rotated to increase strength. Two types of residual thermal stresses develop: microstresses around each fiber and macrostresses between the plies. One researcher used strain gages to measure directional expansion...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003546
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract Thermomechanical fatigue (TMF) refers to the process of fatigue damage under simultaneous changes in temperature and mechanical strain. This article reviews the process of TMF with a practical example of life assessment. It describes TMF damages caused due to two possible types...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001560
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
...: Extension Rate(mm/s) Nominal Strain Rate(s −1 ) 3.4×10 −4 1.4×10 −5 3.4×10 −5 1.4×10 −6 1.7×10 −5 6.7×10 −7 8.6×10 −6 3.4×10 −7 Tests were performed in an inert environment (vegetable oil) and in the residue environment at each extension rate. Mechanical properties (UTS...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006768
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... strains, etc.) X-Ray Diffraction Theory and Residual-Stress Measurement The XRD technique uses the distance between crystallographic planes, that is, d -spacing, as a strain gage. This method can only be applied to crystalline, polycrystalline, and semicrystalline materials ( Ref 1 , 27...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003528
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... relief, induction hardening, service temperature, thermal strains, etc.) X-Ray Diffraction Theory and Residual Stress Measurement The XRD technique uses the distance between crystallographic planes, that is, d -spacing, as a strain gage. This method can only be applied to crystalline...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003513
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... residual stress when applicable) to the material toughness (expressed as K I , J -integral, or CTOD, δ). The FAC defines the critical combination of service loads, material stress-strain properties, and geometry of the cracked member at which failure might be expected. The FAP defines the state...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003573
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... changes in residual stress or from thermal or phase transformation induced stresses and strains that are introduced during heating or cooling. When relief of residual stress causes distortion, the amount of distortion is proportional to the decrease of the residual stress. When distortion is caused...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006797
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... of distortion failure. Warpage can result from changes in residual stress or from thermal- or phase-transformation-induced stresses and strains that are introduced during heating or cooling. When relief of residual stress causes distortion, the amount of distortion is proportional to the decrease...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006767
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... coming from strain mismatch are often labeled secondary stresses. Common secondary stresses that are encountered are residual stresses and thermal stresses. Residual stresses are important in failure analysis. They are different from the applied stresses in that when the forces are released...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003530
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... cause failure by yield. An octahedral shear stress criterion provides a mathematically identical expression to the von Mises criterion. Several other criteria have been proposed (e.g., one based on maximum strain). Additionally, some criteria take into account polar behavior (unequal tensile...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0048840
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... thermomechanical cycling during the remainder of the welding process caused dynamic strain aging and localized embrittlement at the crack tips. Three plates had relatively low toughness. Under the combination of high residual stresses, pressurization stresses, and a low metal-shell temperature, the cracks extended...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001685
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... Studies were initiated to determine the effects of different levels of absorbed hydrogen and differences in the crosshead velocity (strain rate). Reference test material was prepared by solution heat treating in vacuum for 1h, whereas the low-hydrogen test group was solutionized for 8 h. Half...
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Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 5 Graph of %RA/%RA(oil) vs. Nominal Strain Rate for the Tests Conducted in the Residue Paste. More
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Published: 01 December 2019
Fig. 3 Schematic of the nozzle assembly showing location of the strain gages along with the value of max and min principal residual stresses More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c9001141
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... that the microstructure of the hull plate is a ferrite/pearlite structure. Some banding can be seen in some of the microsections as well as numerous elongated inclusions. Fig. 2 Microstructure of hull plate. Residual Stress Determination Four strain gauges; two at the bottom of the bilge keel and two...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006779
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... variables, such as component size and shape, material fatigue properties, the presence of mean stresses including residual stresses, surface conditions, local stress concentrations due to notches and stiffness changes, as well as material and manufacturing imperfections or discontinuities. The problem...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001618
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... failure rate and rapid rate of failure. If the residual stresses had been significant, the plastic strains associated with residual-stress development should have been sufficient to raise the hardness in the regions of high residual stress. Therefore, external forces, including gravity, wind...