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Published: 30 August 2021
Fig. 8 Sequence of rolling and sliding motion with gear rotation. Reproduced courtesy of Gear Tech More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c9001539
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
... on the surface. A 6500x micrograph revealed the intergranular nature of a crack. By trying different grinding procedures, investigators were able to reproduce this type of failure in the laboratory. It was concluded that grinding cracks initiated the failure. It should be noted that governing specifications...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001541
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... Examination by electron microscope proved the crack to be a forging defect called a cold shut—the photo (reproduced here at 38% reduction) demonstrates its appearance at 6,500×. Since defects of this type are usually detected when the raw forging is inspected, this occurrence was considered to be an isolated...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001258
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... for investigation with contiguous wire segments on both sides of the fracture of 300 mm each. Longitudinal and transverse sections were taken through the fracture and at the cut ends from all wire specimens. Figures 1 and 2 reproduce a longitudinal and transverse section of a fracture location. In addition...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001228
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... the gripped end. The blades were fabricated from a stainless heat-treatable chromium steel containing 0.2% C and 13.9% Cr. Figure 1 reproduces the external part of a blade showing a crack (left side in picture). The surface was covered with a dark oily layer which was soluble in toluol and could...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001540
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... microscope fractographic study showed that cracking was predominantly intergranular with hairline indications (photo, 6,500×; reproduced at about 50% reduction). Leaking had occurred only 43 hr after overhaul of the part. Total service time on the part: 9,488 hr. Fig. 1 Diagnosis Cracking...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001542
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... corrosion Introduction A nose landing gear cylinder (AISI 4340, 260,000 to 280,000 psi tensile strength) was found to be cracked and leaking, causing partial depressurization. Investigation revealed the crack to be a stress-corrosion type, judging by the electron fractograph (6,500×; reproduced here...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c9001591
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... are listed in order from the bow toward the stern. Reproduced with permission of the Journal of Metals. Captain Smith gave the order to abandon ship. It was difficult to persuade many of the passengers that the RMS Titanic was really sinking. In keeping with the British Board of Trade...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001206
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
.... The cracks were always found in the proximity of the end crater, specifically on the side of the bead which was deposited first. Figure 1 reproduces an X-ray film on which a crack can be detected which extends in both directions from the thickened end crater. Longitudinal specimens for metallographic...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c9001254
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... has been made tough by heat treatment, all test specimens were subjected to quenching from 850° C in water and tempering to 500° C, and then broken again. The result was the picture reproduced in Fig. 2 . The fracture of bars 1 and 2 with high aluminum content is almost completely conchoidal...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c9001467
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
... fittings can be provided and still incorporate fillets of ample radius were discussed in the article that begins on page 99 in this book, and for the convenience of readers the sketch, taken from this article, showing these arrangements is reproduced in Figure 3 . Such modifications may cost more...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001207
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... stages. The area shown in Fig. 6 is free of ferrite, thus approximately eutectoid; the microstructure consists of pearlite and martensite with remnants of austenite. Figure 7 reproduces the microstructure of a location with hyper-eutectoid carbon content. It consists of secondary cementite...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c9001222
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... at a number of locations in the vicinity of the threaded hole. A photograph of the overall view, shown in Fig. 1 , reproduces part of the surface in the as-received condition. Fig. 1 Photograph showing overall view of part of the surface of the fractured lift disk in the as-received condition. 6...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c9001236
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
... the damaged zone as indicated by the presence of graphite and SiO 2 . Fig. 1 General view of cylinder lining as supplied. 1 3 × It was established metallographically that the cylinder lining was made of cast iron. The microstructure is reproduced in Fig. 2 . Fig. 2...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001405
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... of Metallurgy of Sheffield University, and we are indebted to him for permission to reproduce it. Fig. 1 × 10,000 The replica by means of which the micrograph was obtained was made from a 1 2 % solution of formvar, and some variation in density within the crack area is due to differences...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001224
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... after and without intermediate polish, the section was etched at 2 V terminal potential in a 10n solution of caustic soda which in addition etched and colored the sigma phase. The result for the broken recuperator is reproduced in Figs. 2 , and for the unused one in Figs. 3 . Accordingly, the finned...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001159
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
.... It was deeply eroded over the whole circumference in a trenchlike fashion at the transition to the unalloyed pipe. Figure 2 reproduces a longitudinal section through this location. Corrosion made its appearance in close contact with the mild steel pipe and has consumed almost the entire wall thickness...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001218
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... section of a fracture and next to it a starting crack. The longitudinal section shown in Figs. 9 , reproduces a location close to the previously mentioned second fracture in the loop of a bar. originating at a welding globule. The phenomena are to be interpreted as pitting and stress-corrosion cracking...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0047813
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
...-penetrant inspection was performed to ensure soundness of the metal in the older section. The repaired shaft was machined to provide a taper between the two diameters, rather than reproduce the sharp change in diameter in the original design. The taper section was carefully blended with the smaller diameter...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001161
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... the transition zone, after which it deviated in a direction perpendicular to the inner wall of the tube, without however reaching it at the examined location. Fig. 2 Longitudinal cross section, see Fig. 1 , etch: picral. 4 × Figures 3 and 4 reproduce a section from the flawed region...