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relative hardness

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Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 14 Shell position relative to the running surface in rail 5. Vicker's hardness readings show that shell forms at the interface of cold worked and soft material. More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001269
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... with a 100-g (3.5-oz.) load at 400× in carbide-rich and deficient locations as well as adjacent to the prematurely worn surface. Knoop hardness values were converted to HRC, and are reported in Table 1 . Significant variances in relative hardness were observed. The hob exhibited excessive wear...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001671
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... structure with a relative hardness of 790 HK (25gf load). This sub-layer has an apparent unresolved substructure after etching. A second layer, which is occasionally reported, is a lower carbon containing austenitic layer with a hardness of 403 HK which lacks any evidence of being influenced by etching...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001360
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
..., the microstructure appeared similar to that shown in Fig. 7 , with highly elongated and distorted grains and dark streaks, indicating strain-induced martensite The approximate hardness of the bladed was measured as 47 HRC. This relatively high hardness for a stainless steel suggests that its ductility...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001783
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... that those requirements into context with the entire system to see what is necessary to make appropriate improvements. bushing wear relative hardness aluminum bronze distortion microstructural analysis coefficient of friction AMPCO 45 (aluminum bronze) UNS 63000 D2 (high carbon, high chromium...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006869
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... and the expansion coefficient by the addition of adequate fiber is promoted. The filler’s functionality is governed by the type, orientation, size, modulus of elasticity, relative hardness, brittleness, filler–matrix bounding strength, and, most importantly, synergistic and/or antagonistic effects in the case...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0047793
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... in the impeller also exhibited some damage. Relatively smooth cavities and undercutting of the flank on the pressure side of the spline teeth indicated that the damage had not been caused by wear from metallic contact between the splines but by an erosion or abrasion mechanism. Hardness readings taken...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006790
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... ksi) structure coexists in a relatively soft ferrite or pearlite (HV of approximately 1.0 to 2.9 GPa, or 145 to 420 ksi) matrix. This results in a composite HV for the alloy of between 4.9 and 5.9 GPa (710 and 855 ksi). However, in spite of the relatively high hardness of the composite structure...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003560
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... to 1420 ksi) structure coexists in a relatively soft ferrite or pearlite (HV of approximately 1.0 to 2.9 GPa, or 145 to 420 ksi) matrix. This results in a composite HV for the alloy of between 4.9 and 5.9 GPa (710 and 855 ksi). However, in spite of the relatively high hardness of the composite structure...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c0051294
EISBN: 978-1-62708-221-1
... Abstract An agricultural tine, which is a relatively large double torsion spring with outer legs that are used to sweep through hay or other crops and turn them over, had failed. It was made hard-drawn carbon steel. Bending fatigue was revealed by visual examination to be almost certainly...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.homegoods.c9001698
EISBN: 978-1-62708-222-8
... pitting corrosion at the ID surfaces of the copper tubing. Analysis of a sample of water obtained from the subdivision revealed relatively high hardness levels (210 mg/l), high levels of sulfate ions (55 mg/l), a pH of 7.6 and a sulfate-to-chloride ratio of 3:1. Chloride levels were determined...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001051
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... was predominantly transgranular and was associated with pits on the inside surfaces. The relatively high hardness level found on a band at the weld fusion line indicated relatively high residual stresses at the weld. The only slight lowering of hardness values after a 540 °C (1000 °F) heat treatment indicated...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c0048596
EISBN: 978-1-62708-221-1
... the failures occurred were all in the same position relative to the direction of wheel rotation. Visual examination showed the break was a fairly flat transverse fracture in the threaded section between the washer and the nut. The appearance of the fracture surfaces was characteristic of failure by low-cycle...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.machtools.c0089429
EISBN: 978-1-62708-223-5
... contribute to the failure. The largest carbide band was about 8 mm (0.32 in.) long and located about one-fourth of the distance from the central axis to the outer edge. It was also some distance from the drill tip. This location implies relatively light loading. The manufacturer made hardness...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0092131
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... spring and an outer spring (both of patented and drawn high-carbon steel wire) taken from another cylinder in the same engine were examined in the laboratory to determine why one had distorted and the other had not. Investigation (visual inspection, microstructure examination, and hardness testing...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c9001498
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
... Abstract One end of an axle shaft containing the integral spur pinion was submitted for examination, along with the report of a tooth pitting failure. The spur pinion, integral to the axle shaft, operated in a medium-size, off-highway truck at an open-pit mine, for “a relatively short time...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001142
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
..., oriented in the direction of the fracture and roughly equal in length. Flaws about 1.3 mm deep, steps, and a chevron pattern were observed on the fractured surface as were cleavage facets, revealed by SEM. Hardness was relatively high and the microstructure near the fracture surface appeared elongated...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001340
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... of circumferential cracks and fissures on tube 3. Note the craze cracking in the scale indicative of relatively rapid tube wall stretching Fig. 4 Cross-section through tube 4. Note the pronounced ovality of the fireside compared to the semicircular cross section. of the coldside. Fig. 7 Cross...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c9001497
EISBN: 978-1-62708-221-1
... period of time. The cause of failure was a suddenly applied peak overload, which initiated a crack at the root radius. Progression continued by relatively low overstress from the crack, which was now a stress-concentration point. This was a classic tooth bending fatigue failure. Bevel gears Lift...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0048253
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
...) because the carbon content of the carburized case and consequently the case hardness were below specification and inadequate for the loads to which the gear was subjected. The pitting and wear pattern observed on gear 2 were relatively mild because case-carbon content and case hardness were within...