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relative hardness

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001783
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
..., the investigation provides information on not only better materials, but also design changes intended to reduce wear and increase service life. bushing wear relative hardness aluminum bronze distortion microstructural analysis coefficient of friction AMPCO 45 (aluminum bronze) UNS 63000 D2 (high...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.homegoods.c9001698
EISBN: 978-1-62708-222-8
... Micrograph showing pitting corrosion at the ID surfaces of the copper tubing. Analysis of a sample of water obtained from the subdivision revealed relatively high hardness levels (210 mg/l), high levels of sulfate ions (55 mg/l), a pH of 7.6 and a sulfate-to-chloride ratio of 3:1. Chloride levels were...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001810
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... damage mechanisms fabrication practices fretting corrosion hardness heat treatment lubrication plastic flow rolling-contact fatigue rolling-element bearings failures ROLLING-ELEMENT BEARINGS use rolling elements (either balls or rollers) interposed between two raceways, and relative motion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c0051294
EISBN: 978-1-62708-221-1
...Abstract Abstract An agricultural tine, which is a relatively large double torsion spring with outer legs that are used to sweep through hay or other crops and turn them over, had failed. It was made hard-drawn carbon steel. Bending fatigue was revealed by visual examination to be almost...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001142
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... of the cylinder, oriented in the direction of the fracture and roughly equal in length. Flaws about 1.3 mm deep, steps, and a chevron pattern were observed on the fractured surface as were cleavage facets, revealed by SEM. Hardness was relatively high and the microstructure near the fracture surface appeared...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0092131
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... steel spring and an outer spring (both of patented and drawn high-carbon steel wire) taken from another cylinder in the same engine were examined in the laboratory to determine why one had distorted and the other had not. Investigation (visual inspection, microstructure examination, and hardness testing...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c9001545
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
...Abstract Abstract The presence of secondary, branching intergranular stress-corrosion cracking in a type 440C stainless bearing caused the analyst to overlook the real culprit, which was a mechanically-initiated, primary transgranular crack that propagated through the steel's hard chromium...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0090974
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... A 148 grade 135/125 failed in railroad maintenance service. Ancillary property requirements included a 285 to 331 HB hardness range and minimum impact energy of 27 J (20 ft · 1bf) at −40 °C (−40 °F). The conditions at the time of failure were characterized as relatively cold. Investigation...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001269
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... with ASTM E384-92 with a 100-g (3.5-oz.) load at 400× in carbide-rich and deficient locations as well as adjacent to the prematurely worn surface. Knoop hardness values were converted to HRC, and are reported in Table 1 . Significant variances in relative hardness were observed. Microhardness Readings...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001671
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... structure with a relative hardness of 790 HK (25gf load). This sub-layer has an apparent unresolved substructure after etching. A second layer, which is occasionally reported, is a lower carbon containing austenitic layer with a hardness of 403 HK which lacks any evidence of being influenced by etching...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003558
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... (loose particles between surfaces) Stress level High stress or low stress Surface alteration Scratching, polishing, or gouging Presence of fluid Dry abrasion or slurry abrasion (particles in fluid) Relative hardness of particles to surface Surface harder or softer than particles...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006822
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... with metal wire brushes and abrasive cleaners should be avoided, because these relatively hard materials can permanently alter the fracture surface on a microscopic level. Some fracture surfaces may ultimately not be able to be cleaned in such a way that the underlying or original metal fracture features...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003524
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of an acetate replica, and a setup time of several hours is required. However, the added area can be very important in an investigation. Hardness testing with a portable hardness testing instrument also may be performed during on-site failure analysis. Several different types of testers are available...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001360
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... as 47 HRC. This relatively high hardness for a stainless steel suggests that its ductility was relatively low and that it was relatively notch sensitive in fatigue loading. The blade fractured in three modes: crack initiation, fatigue crack propagation, and final rapid fracture. The crack initiated...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006790
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... translation 18. Moore M.A. , The Relationship Between the Abrasive Wear Resistance, Hardness and Microstructure of Ferritic Materials , Wear , Vol 28 , 1974 , p 59 – 68 10.1016/0043-1648(74)90101-X 19. Richardson R.C.D. , The Wear of Metals by Relatively Soft Abrasives , Wear...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003560
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... tool steel, showing material fracture at edge of contact surface Fig. 5 Effect of abrasive hardness on wear behavior of metals and ceramics. Source: Ref 7 Fig. 6 Effect of nominal contact stress on relative abrasion rating of metallic wear materials. QT, quenched and tempered...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003566
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... impressions in the upper left corner of micrograph (c) clearly demonstrate the high hardness of the light-etching band relative to that of the surrounding matrix. In contrast to the response of the annealed microstructure, the deformation pattern in the quenched-and-tempered microstructure...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003522
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... for include the nature of the damage, for example, overall wear or scores in the bearing surfaces. In the latter case, it is particularly important to identify any hard particles that may be embedded and trapped at the ends of the score marks. Where unexpected wear between components in relative motion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006757
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... information as to their relative hardness. The development of new surface-modification techniques and coatings in order to improve the service life of components in tribological applications has produced a need to measure the hardness of the surface layers, and it has become necessary to determine changes...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0047793
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... in the impeller and the relatively smooth cavities and undercutting of the flank on this side indicated that the damage was caused by an erosion or abrasion mechanism. A relatively smooth worn area was formed at the center of each tooth due to an abrasive action and an undulating outline with undercutting...