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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001099
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... Abstract Uncoated high-strength alloy steel cap screws retaining a cast aluminum (356.0) diffuser assembly in a centrifugal refrigerant compressor failed in a brittle manner a short time after the system was placed in operation. Evidence obtained during the failure analysis indicated...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001534
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... Abstract A detailed failure analysis was conducted on an ammonia refrigerant condenser tube component that failed catastrophically during its initial hours of operation. Evidence collected clearly demonstrated that the weld between a pipe and a dished end contained a sharp unfused region at its...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001364
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... Abstract An investigation of the impeller and deposit samples from a centrifugal compressor revealed that an aluminum IR-12 refrigerant reaction had occurred, causing extensive damage to the second-stage impeller and contaminating the internal compressor components. The spherical surface...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001628
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
..., the OD of the cylinder was exposed to liquid ammonia refrigerant containing lubricant from the compressor. The lubricant (mineral oil) was intended to separate from the ammonia and be recirculated through the compressor. Nondestructive portable optical microscopy, XRF, EDS, and XPS analyses showed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001312
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... Abstract A copper condenser dashpot in a refrigeration plant failed prematurely. The dashpot was a long tubular component with a cup brazed at each end. Stereomicroscopic examination of the fracture surface at low magnification revealed a typical ductile mode of failure. The failure...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001441
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... Abstract Soft-soldered copper pipe joints used in refrigerating plants failed. The solder had not adhered uniformly to the pipe surface. In addition, there were some longitudinal grooves on the pipe surfaces, parts of which were not filled with solder. The unsoldered areas formed cavities...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001815
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... Abstract Copper electrical feedthrough pins used in a bolting application in a refrigeration compressor had functioned without failure for years of production and thousands of units. When some of the pins began to fail, an investigation was conducted to determine the cause. Visual examination...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c9001704
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
... of the suspect bacteria. It is also possible that improper sampling practices could have contributed to the negative results. However, the sample was collected per established guidelines, which recommend samples for biological analysis be refrigerated or stored in ice until the analysis is performed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001808
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
..., bacteria control by free chlorine between 0.2 and 0.5 ppm, and corrosion inhibitor orthophosphate between 10 and 20 ppm. An internally and externally rifled copper tube chiller contained the treated gray water for 4 years of service before a failure occurred. A refrigerant was on the shellside of the tube...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001339
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... the equipment refrigerated below −40 °C (−40 °F) during the 1987 plant shutdown. However, this effort was not successful, and a leak was detected in the piping within 12 h after the piping exceeded the −40 °C (−40 °F) temperature. Pertinent Specifications Aluminum alloy 5083-O was the specified seamless...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006868
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... in the Arizona sun for several days or more), and any other potential environment in which it may be located. A part designed for the inside of a refrigerator will react and function far differently if it were used under the hood of an automobile or on the roof of a dwelling. Temperature and strain, along...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006915
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... distorts after a refrigerator rests on it for many years. Various combinations of springs and dashpots can more closely approximate behavior of actual materials for modeling purposes. Electrical Properties Volume and surface resistivity, the dielectric constant, dissipation factor, dielectric...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006916
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... and the process temperature. Since many hot-melt prepregs are one-component systems (i.e., premixed), storing at low temperatures (refrigerator or freezer) is required for long shelf-life. In solvent-based prepregs, controlled chemical reactions occur during the treating process, resulting in a partially...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003510
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001814
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... The surface was decarburized with a hardness of 55 to 57 HRC, which did not change after refrigeration. Fig. 16(a) AISI O1 tool steel ring forging that cracked during quenching. The forging was overaustenitized (unstable retained austenite was present) and was decarburized to a depth of about 0.5 mm...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003573
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... upon solution heat treating at 955 °C (1750 °F), followed by refrigeration at −75 °C (−100 °F) and aging. The other washer was soft after an identical heat treatment and yielded under load (flattened). The microstructure of the acceptable washer was a mixture of austenite and martensite; the structure...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003532
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006818
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... was cooled in liquid nitrogen, which transformed much of the retained austenite to martensite and increased the hardness to 64 to 65 HRC. The surface was decarburized with a hardness of 55 to 57 HRC, which did not change after refrigeration. Fig. 16 (a) AISI O1 tool steel ring forging that cracked...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006797
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... the acceptable sublot had developed the required hardness upon solution heat treating at 955 °C (1750 °F), followed by refrigeration at −75 °C (−100 °F) and aging. The other washer was soft after an identical heat treatment and yielded under load (flattened). The microstructure of the acceptable washer...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006765
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2