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refractory-lined pipe

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001850
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... inspection, chemical analysis, microstructural characterization, and mechanical property testing. The pipe was made from nonresulfurized carbon steel as specified and was lined with an alumina refractory. Visual inspection revealed cracks in the refractory lining, which corresponded with the location...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001149
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... of the three furnace stacks has a refractory lined pipe with an ID of 1.8 meters (6 feet) which leads into this part of the duct. The duct has a 1.9 cm (0.75 in.) wall thickness over the first 5.2 meters (16.9 feet), a 1.3 cm (0.5 in.) wall thickness over the next 4.9 meters (16 feet) and in the first...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001477
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... etc. can develop multiple cracking not unlike the form seen in the present example. Samples of the deposit taken from various locations, were analysed with this object in view. Since the deposit was of similar colour to the refractories with which the casing for the drum was lined on three sides...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006835
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
.... Fig. 5 Longitudinal section through an ingot showing extensive centerline shrinkage Piping can be reduced by pouring ingots with the big end up, providing risers in the ingot top, and applying sufficient hot-top material (insulating refractories or exothermic materials) immediately after...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001813
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... that there was no risk to the structural integrity of the equipment. According to this author, in 1943, a steam transfer line at a US power generating station failed during service: the pipe had been operating for 48,000 h at 500 °C, and the failure resulted because of a planar arrangement of graphite nodules running...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003507
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... through an ingot showing extensive centerline shrinkage Piping can be minimized by pouring ingots with the big end up, providing risers in the ingot top, and applying sufficient hot-top material (insulating refractories or exothermic materials) immediately after pouring. These techniques extend...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001818
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... for major oil refiners is failures or near-failures that can be attributed to insufficient alloy content in steels for hydrogen service. In one example, a carbon steel pipe section failed that was inadvertently substituted for the specified 1.25Cr-0.5Mo steel. This 305-mm (12-in.) diam line ruptured after...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003568
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... , Microstructural Characterization of Surface Layers Formed on Alloy Steel During Erosion-Oxidation in a Fluidized Bed , J. Mater. Sci. Vol 32 , 1997 , p 4575 – 4583 10.1023/A:1018677418941 17. Crowley M.S. , Know Causes of, Solutions to, CFB-Boiler Refractory Problems , Power , Vol 136...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001814
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
..., refractory-lined combustion chamber and a lower water quench chamber. The gasifier feed is a high concentration water slurry of petroleum coke containing minor additives. This slurry is injected into the top of the gasifier where it reacts with oxygen at high pressure and temperature, producing synthesis gas...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003552
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., because the cracking reaction generates cyanides. The presence of cyanides, hydrogen sulfide, and water enhances hydrogen absorption into steel. Hydrogen-induced blistering also occurs on steel plates used as cathodes in industrial electrolysis. Line pipe transmitting wet sour gas can develop hydrogen...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006795
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... , 1997 , p 4575 – 4583 10.1023/A:1018677418941 16. Crowley M.S. , Know Causes of, Solutions to, CFB-Boiler Refractory Problems , Power , Vol 136 , Jan 1992 , p 54 – 57 17. Tucker R.C. and Ashari A.A. , The Structure Property Relationship of Erosion Resistant...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001108
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... life and would be ready for revamping. For a future solution, following modern design concepts, it was recommended that the Incoloy 800Hor H1 pigtails be changed to a low-alloy steel, such as 2.25Cr-1Mo, protected by refractory lining and waterjackets. How Failure Could Have Been Prevented...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006812
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... for the specified 1.25Cr-0.5Mo steel. This 305 mm (12 in.) diameter line ruptured due to HTHA after 16 years of service at conditions slightly above the Nelson curve limit for carbon steel, resulting in an expensive fire. The failed end of the pipe was jagged but undistorted, indicating a brittle failure ( Fig. 4a...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001615
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... and originate almost exclusively from foreign matter, such as refractory linings, that is occluded in the metal while it is molten or being cast, and (2) those inclusions that form in the metal because of a change in temperature or composition. This second category of nonmetallic inclusions, including oxides...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006831
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... in the form of fins (or flash) without change in principal casting dimensions A 111 Thin fins (or flash) at the parting line or at core prints Joint flash or fins A 112 Projections in the form of veins on the casting surface Veining or finning A 113 Network of projections on the surface...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006784
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... potential. Vertical dashed lines define potential range over which nonpassivating films may crack under stress. Source: Ref 9 Fig. 4 Two views of a fracture from hydrogen embrittlement of a type 431 stainless steel mushroom-head closure. This is not typical; hydrogen embrittlement cracking...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003545
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... 300–400 0.48–0.54 T M Titanium alloys 315 600 0.3 T M Low-alloy steels 370 700 0.36 T M Austenitic, iron-base, heat-resisting alloys 540 1000 0.49 T M Nickel- and cobalt-base heat-resisting alloys 650 1200 0.56 T M Refractory metals and alloys 980–1540 1800...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001817
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... section of overheated tube specimen at outside surface showing 0.05-mm (0.002-in.) thick oxygen-embrittled layer (light band near top) Fig. 12 Carbon steel discharge line at a cooling tower that failed because of poor fit-up at Y-joint and poor-quality welds. (a) Original joint design of pipe...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., and fouling, and fabrication defects, which include most incidents of poor workmanship, improper material, and defective material, together account for more than 75% of all failures of steam-power-plant equipment. Most steam-generator failures occur in pressurized components, that is, the tubing, piping...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.9781627083294
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4