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refractory metals

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Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003552
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... The article focuses on the types of hydrogen embrittlement that occur in all the major commercial metal and alloy systems, including stainless steels, nickel-base alloys, aluminum and aluminum alloys, titanium and titanium alloys, copper and copper alloys, and transition and refractory metals. The specific...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001389
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... ( Fig. 3 ), which appeared to be corrosion film or possibly excess brazing flux that had not been properly removed during the washing operation. Fig. 3 Schematic showing the silver-refractory metal contacts Testing Procedure and Results Chemical Analysis/Identification Coatings...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... those chemical and physical properties that make them applicable for structures, or as components of systems, that are exposed to environments above 538 °C (1000 °F).” Nowadays, refractories are made of not only oxides and nonoxide compounds (carbides, nitrides, and carbons), but also of metallic...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001850
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... carbon steel) alumina refractory lining Introduction The schematic representation of tuyere blow stock of the blast furnace of the present investigation is shown in Fig. 1 . The furnace has a hot metal production capacity of 3 million metric ton per annum. Hot blast from three stoves enters...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003555
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...-temperature applications, refractories are being used to replace superalloys. Refractories are mainly high-melting-point metallic oxides but also include substances such as carbides, borides, nitrides, silicides, and graphite ( Table 2 ). Maximum service temperatures are always less than the melting points...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c0046998
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... (0.120 in.). Failure occurred where the tube passed through the refractory hearth (floor) of the furnace. Although the furnace atmosphere was neutral with respect to the work, it had a carburizing potential relative to the radiant tubes. Analysis (visual inspection, 250x spectroscopic examination...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.homegoods.c9001610
EISBN: 978-1-62708-222-8
.... , and Kawasaki T. : “Biocompatibility and Osteogenesis of Refractory Metal Implants, Titanium, Hafnium, Niobium, Tantalum and Rhenium,” Biomaterials , 2001 , 22 , pp. 1253 – 62 . 20. Flint S.H. , Brooks J.D. , and Bremer P.J. : “Properties of the Stainless Steel Substrate...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0048840
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
.... The vessel had a type 304 stainless steel shroud around the catalyst bed as protection against the overheating that was possible if the gas bypassed the bed through the refractory material. The failure was observed to have begun at the toe of the shroud-support ring weld. The ring was found to have a number...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c9001599
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
... corrosion Background Visual and Metallurgical Examination Results Discussion Conclusions References References 1. Marra J.C. : Ceram. Trans. , 1996 , vol. 78 , p. 241 . 2. Massalski T.B. : Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams , vol. 2 , American Society for Metals...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001477
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... and Brittle Fracture in Metals , Failure Analysis and Prevention , Vol 11 , ASM Handbook , ASM International , 2002 , p 587 – 626 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003538 The boiler was designed and constructed for a working pressure of 2060 psi and had been in service for 14 years. It had steamed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001326
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... and ladle refractories, furnace and ladle slags, and deoxidants containing calcium. Refractories normally contain a large MgO content; the absence of magnesium in the inclusions indicates that the refractories did not play a role. Deoxidants containing calcium normally contain significant amounts of silicon...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c9001249
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
...Abstract Abstract The flanged bearing bush carrying the drive shaft of a feed pump suddenly fractured after about two years of service. The chemical composition was normal for high chromium ledeburitic cast steel, which was corrosion and wear resistant as well as refractory. For unknown reasons...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001814
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
..., refractory-lined combustion chamber and a lower water quench chamber. The gasifier feed is a high concentration water slurry of petroleum coke containing minor additives. This slurry is injected into the top of the gasifier where it reacts with oxygen at high pressure and temperature, producing synthesis gas...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003545
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...) may deform by creep at or a little above room temperature. In contrast, refractory body-centered cubic metals (such as tungsten and molybdenum) and nickel-base superalloys require temperatures near 1000 °C (1830 °F) to activate the onset of creep-deformation engineering significance. Typical materials...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001149
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... viewed from just north of baghouse. Damaged south duct can be seen in background. The north furnace is a silicon metal furnace, the south is a ferrosilicon furnace. The ferrosilicon furnace was operated at increasing power levels for almost five months; at which time large cracks occurred at many...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006780
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... 300–390 0.48–0.54 T M Titanium alloys 315 600 0.3 T M Low-alloy steels 370 700 0.36 T M Austenitic, iron-base heat-resisting alloys 540 1000 0.49 T M Nickel- and cobalt-base heat-resisting alloys 650 1200 0.56 T M Refractory metals and alloys 980–1540 1800...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003508
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... (or defects, in the terminology used by the ICFTA classification scheme, Table 1 ): Metallic projections Cavities Discontinuities Defects Incomplete casting Incorrect dimension Inclusions or structural anomalies International classification of common casting defects Table 1...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006784
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Analysis of Hydrogen Embrittlement in Commodity-Grade Steels Stainless Steels Nickel-Base Alloys Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys Copper and Copper Alloys Titanium and Titanium Alloys Transition and Refractory Metals Hydrogen Embrittlement Fracture Characteristics Hydrogen Reaction...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001712
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
...Abstract Abstract A failure analysis was conducted in late 1996 on two rolls that had been used in the production of iron and steel powder. The rolls had elongated over their length such that the roll trunnions had impacted with the furnace wall refractory. The result was distortion and bowing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006795
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... , p 55 – 60 10.1016/S0032-5910(97)03316-0 40. Brosnan D.A. , Crowley M.S. , and Johnson R.C. , CPI Drive Refractory Advances , Chem. Eng. , Vol 105 , Oct 1998 , p 110 – 120 41. Tilly G.P. , Sand Erosion of Metals and Plastics: A Brief Review , Wear , Vol...