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refractory materials

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0048840
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
.... The vessel had a type 304 stainless steel shroud around the catalyst bed as protection against the overheating that was possible if the gas bypassed the bed through the refractory material. The failure was observed to have begun at the toe of the shroud-support ring weld. The ring was found to have a number...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... corrosion and describes the corrosion resistance characteristics of specific classes of refractories and structural ceramics. The article also examines the prevention strategies that minimize corrosion failures of both classes of materials. aerospace industry automotive industry chemical corrosion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c9001249
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
...Abstract Abstract The flanged bearing bush carrying the drive shaft of a feed pump suddenly fractured after about two years of service. The chemical composition was normal for high chromium ledeburitic cast steel, which was corrosion and wear resistant as well as refractory. For unknown reasons...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001299
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
.... SEM examination revealed that the fracture origin was a subsurface defect-a hard refractory (Al2O3) inclusion—in the zone close to the pin radius. Chemical analysis showed the crankshaft material to be of inferior quality. It was recommended that magnetic particle inspection using the dc method...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001712
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
...Abstract Abstract A failure analysis was conducted in late 1996 on two rolls that had been used in the production of iron and steel powder. The rolls had elongated over their length such that the roll trunnions had impacted with the furnace wall refractory. The result was distortion and bowing...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c9001599
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
... radioactive waste streams. 1 During the testing program, the melter was used to evaluate vitrification of various feed chemistries from across the DOE complex, processing parameters, and melter design/materials of construction such as refractory materials and drain valves. The walls of the melter chamber...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001477
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... stress corrosion cracking of a low alloy steel. The deposit was basically a mixture of calcium sulphate with silica and silicate. These chemicals were also the main constituents of the refractory material, but were present in an inverse ratio. It was concluded that the deposit had originated from...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003555
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... sensitization stress-corrosion cracking sulfidation thermal barrier coatings WHEN FAILURES OCCUR, the unscheduled outages result in loss of reliability and increased economic costs. A failure investigation can determine the primary cause of material, component, or system degradation. Based...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001850
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... by cracking of the refractory lining. In a carbon steel, damage due to creep usually occurs along its grain boundaries during prolonged exposure to high temperature and results in microstructural degradation [ 10 , 11 ]. The creep damage mechanism of materials has been categorized into four broad...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001396
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... pattern on lower side of corroded tube from bakers' oven A related form of attack is sometimes found in the tubes of cyclone type furnaces. These tubes, which surround the furnace chamber, form part of the boiler water circuit and are studded to provide anchorage points for the refractory material...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001389
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
...Abstract Abstract During routine quality control testing, small circuit breakers exhibited high contact resistance and, in some cases, insulation of the contacts by a surface film. The contacts were made of silver-refractory (tungsten or molybdenum) alloys. Infrared analysis revealed the film...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001814
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... . Fig. 5 Burned away cone plate and baffle, also showing deposits on the quench lines. The cone plate that should be in the upper right-hand part of the photograph is burned away, exposing the castable refractory that was above it. Notice the material build-up on the water-cooled quench lines...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001149
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... values, which are limited by creep effects. Therefore, a refractory lining insulation was added to keep the material at a temperature below the creep regime. It would also have been possible to use more expansion joints in order to reduce the spans so that the dead weight stresses remained below...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006831
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... and metal at the hottest points of the casting (re-entrant angles and cores) Metal penetration D 224 Fragment of mold material embedded in casting surface Dip coat spall, scab D 230 Plate-like metallic projections with rough surfaces, usually parallel to casting surface D 231...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006795
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... increasing the rate of damage. Erosion by fly ash causes polishing, flat spots, wall thinning, and eventual tube rupture. Fly ash erosion can be controlled by coating tube surfaces with refractory cements and other hard, erosion-resistant materials, although this reduces the heat-transfer capability...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006835
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
.... Fig. 5 Longitudinal section through an ingot showing extensive centerline shrinkage Piping can be reduced by pouring ingots with the big end up, providing risers in the ingot top, and applying sufficient hot-top material (insulating refractories or exothermic materials) immediately after...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003568
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... by particles having higher kinetic energy, thus increasing the rate of damage. Erosion by fly ash causes polishing, flat spots, wall thinning, and eventual tube rupture. Fly-ash erosion can be controlled by coating tube surfaces with refractory cements or other hard, wear-resistant materials, although...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006828
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... to join metals to ceramics. Procedures for brazing various materials such as cast irons, steels, stainless steels, heat-resistant alloys, aluminum alloys, titanium alloys, copper alloys, reactive and refractory metals, and carbon and graphite are described in Welding, Brazing, and Soldering , Volume 6...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001615
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... concentration of nonmetallic inclusions in the central portion of the raw bar stock rather than the usual problem of improper forging temperature. Strict control over the inclusion content in the raw material by changing the vendor eliminated the problem. Forming defect Hot forging Nonmetallic...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001108
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... that hot bending be used for fabrication of the curved parts. A change of alloy to a low-alloy chromium-molybdenum allay to protect against heat was also suggested. Chemical processing equipment Chemical reactors Creep (materials) Pipe bends Tubing Incoloy 800H UNS N08810 Intergranular...