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refractory lining

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001850
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... inspection, chemical analysis, microstructural characterization, and mechanical property testing. The pipe was made from nonresulfurized carbon steel as specified and was lined with an alumina refractory. Visual inspection revealed cracks in the refractory lining, which corresponded with the location...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0048840
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
...) tensile strength and a 241-MPa (35-ksi) yield strength. The steel mill tests showed a Charpy V-notch energy absorption of 30 J (22 ft · lb) at 20 °C (68 °F). The plates had been hot formed into segments during construction of the reactor. The inside of the vessel was refractory lined to keep its...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001814
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
..., refractory-lined combustion chamber and a lower water quench chamber. The gasifier feed is a high concentration water slurry of petroleum coke containing minor additives. This slurry is injected into the top of the gasifier where it reacts with oxygen at high pressure and temperature, producing synthesis gas...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001149
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... of the three furnace stacks has a refractory lined pipe with an ID of 1.8 meters (6 feet) which leads into this part of the duct. The duct has a 1.9 cm (0.75 in.) wall thickness over the first 5.2 meters (16.9 feet), a 1.3 cm (0.5 in.) wall thickness over the next 4.9 meters (16 feet) and in the first...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... , High-Temperature Corrosion of Technical Ceramics , Fordham R.J. , Ed., Elsevier Applied Science , 1990 , p 93 – 108 17. Lowrance K. , Refractory Lining Construction , Pneumatic Steelmaking, Volume 3 on Refractories , Rigaud M.A. and Landy R.A. , Ed., Iron and Steel...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c9001599
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
... (approximately 45 × 45 × 45 cm) were refractory lined with alumina zirconia silicate and high chrome K3 brick. Four Inconel 690 sheathed molybdenum electrodes, one on each wall, were installed below the molten glass level to provide Joule heating. Temperatures in excess of 1300 °C were not uncommon...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001108
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... life and would be ready for revamping. For a future solution, following modern design concepts, it was recommended that the Incoloy 800Hor H1 pigtails be changed to a low-alloy steel, such as 2.25Cr-1Mo, protected by refractory lining and waterjackets. How Failure Could Have Been Prevented...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001615
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... and originate almost exclusively from foreign matter, such as refractory linings, that is occluded in the metal while it is molten or being cast, and (2) those inclusions that form in the metal because of a change in temperature or composition. This second category of nonmetallic inclusions, including oxides...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006835
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... with the liquid metal at high temperatures. The water vapor may originate from the charge materials, slag ingredients and alloy additions, refractory linings, ingot molds, or even the atmosphere itself if steps are not taken to prevent such contamination. The resulting hydrogen goes into solution at elevated...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c0046998
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... (0.120 in.). Failure occurred where the tube passed through the refractory hearth (floor) of the furnace. Although the furnace atmosphere was neutral with respect to the work, it had a carburizing potential relative to the radiant tubes. Analysis (visual inspection, 250x spectroscopic examination...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001396
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... a contributory factor. The attack was located adjacent to the base of those studs which were situated in zones where the protective refractory lining had become detached, thereby exposing them to an excessive temperature, which suggested that the attack was linked with an abnormally high heat flux through...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003507
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... at high temperatures. The water vapor may originate from the charge materials, slag ingredients and alloy additions, refractory linings, ingot molds, or even the atmosphere itself, if steps are not taken to prevent such contamination. The resulting hydrogen goes into solution at elevated temperatures...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001818
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... steel is made in a furnace normally used to make high-alloy steels. The refractory lining of the furnace may impart sufficient residual chromium and other alloying elements to a heat of low-carbon steel that problems occur when components made from that heat are joined using standard welding procedures...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001477
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... etc. can develop multiple cracking not unlike the form seen in the present example. Samples of the deposit taken from various locations, were analysed with this object in view. Since the deposit was of similar colour to the refractories with which the casing for the drum was lined on three sides...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003555
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...-base superalloy 1040 1900 1 S-816 cobalt-base superalloy 980 1800 1 Hastelloy X nickel-base superalloy 1205 2200 1 HX (17Cr-66Ni-bal Fe) 1150 2100 1 (a) Seamless tube. (b) Electric resistance welded tube Melting points of common refractories Table 2...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001712
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
...Abstract Abstract A failure analysis was conducted in late 1996 on two rolls that had been used in the production of iron and steel powder. The rolls had elongated over their length such that the roll trunnions had impacted with the furnace wall refractory. The result was distortion and bowing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006831
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... in the form of fins (or flash) without change in principal casting dimensions A 111 Thin fins (or flash) at the parting line or at core prints Joint flash or fins A 112 Projections in the form of veins on the casting surface Veining or finning A 113 Network of projections on the surface...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006812
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... and susceptibility to cracking. Such steels are sometimes produced inadvertently when low-carbon steel is made in a furnace normally used to make high-alloy steels or when large amounts of recycled steel material are used to make steel without additional refining to remove such elements. The refractory lining...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006828
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... to join metals to ceramics. Procedures for brazing various materials such as cast irons, steels, stainless steels, heat-resistant alloys, aluminum alloys, titanium alloys, copper alloys, reactive and refractory metals, and carbon and graphite are described in Welding, Brazing, and Soldering , Volume 6...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003552
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of Lockheed-Georgia Company Fig. 3 Potential ranges of environmentally assisted cracking by (I) hydrogen embrittlement, (II) cracking of unstable passive film, and (III) cracking initiated at pits near the pitting potential. Vertical dashed lines define potential range over which nonpassivating...