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Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...Corrosion resistance of refractories based on the maximum temperature criterion Table 1 Corrosion resistance of refractories based on the maximum temperature criterion Type of refractory Temperature limit in indicated atmosphere, °C (°F) Slags and fluxes Hot gases Basic Acid...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001389
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
...Abstract Abstract During routine quality control testing, small circuit breakers exhibited high contact resistance and, in some cases, insulation of the contacts by a surface film. The contacts were made of silver-refractory (tungsten or molybdenum) alloys. Infrared analysis revealed the film...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c0046998
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... (0.120 in.). Failure occurred where the tube passed through the refractory hearth (floor) of the furnace. Although the furnace atmosphere was neutral with respect to the work, it had a carburizing potential relative to the radiant tubes. Analysis (visual inspection, 250x spectroscopic examination...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001850
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... inspection, chemical analysis, microstructural characterization, and mechanical property testing. The pipe was made from nonresulfurized carbon steel as specified and was lined with an alumina refractory. Visual inspection revealed cracks in the refractory lining, which corresponded with the location...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003552
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... and refractory metals. The specific types of hydrogen embrittlement discussed include internal reversible hydrogen embrittlement, hydrogen environment embrittlement, and hydrogen reaction embrittlement. The article describes preservice and early-service fractures of commodity-grade steel components suspected...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001712
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
...Abstract Abstract A failure analysis was conducted in late 1996 on two rolls that had been used in the production of iron and steel powder. The rolls had elongated over their length such that the roll trunnions had impacted with the furnace wall refractory. The result was distortion and bowing...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0048840
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
.... The vessel had a type 304 stainless steel shroud around the catalyst bed as protection against the overheating that was possible if the gas bypassed the bed through the refractory material. The failure was observed to have begun at the toe of the shroud-support ring weld. The ring was found to have a number...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c9001249
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
...Abstract Abstract The flanged bearing bush carrying the drive shaft of a feed pump suddenly fractured after about two years of service. The chemical composition was normal for high chromium ledeburitic cast steel, which was corrosion and wear resistant as well as refractory. For unknown reasons...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001299
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
.... SEM examination revealed that the fracture origin was a subsurface defect-a hard refractory (Al2O3) inclusion—in the zone close to the pin radius. Chemical analysis showed the crankshaft material to be of inferior quality. It was recommended that magnetic particle inspection using the dc method...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003555
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...-base superalloy 1040 1900 1 S-816 cobalt-base superalloy 980 1800 1 Hastelloy X nickel-base superalloy 1205 2200 1 HX (17Cr-66Ni-bal Fe) 1150 2100 1 (a) Seamless tube. (b) Electric resistance welded tube Melting points of common refractories Table 2...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001326
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... this scenario seems both simple and surprising, it is the only one that seems plausible. Because the occurrence of CaO-type inclusions is unusual, further discussion is warranted. There are three main sources of calcia-bearing inclusions ( Ref 1 ): furnace and ladle refractories, furnace and ladle slags...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001477
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... etc. can develop multiple cracking not unlike the form seen in the present example. Samples of the deposit taken from various locations, were analysed with this object in view. Since the deposit was of similar colour to the refractories with which the casing for the drum was lined on three sides...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c9001599
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
... radioactive waste streams. 1 During the testing program, the melter was used to evaluate vitrification of various feed chemistries from across the DOE complex, processing parameters, and melter design/materials of construction such as refractory materials and drain valves. The walls of the melter chamber...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001814
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
..., refractory-lined combustion chamber and a lower water quench chamber. The gasifier feed is a high concentration water slurry of petroleum coke containing minor additives. This slurry is injected into the top of the gasifier where it reacts with oxygen at high pressure and temperature, producing synthesis gas...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001149
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... of the three furnace stacks has a refractory lined pipe with an ID of 1.8 meters (6 feet) which leads into this part of the duct. The duct has a 1.9 cm (0.75 in.) wall thickness over the first 5.2 meters (16.9 feet), a 1.3 cm (0.5 in.) wall thickness over the next 4.9 meters (16 feet) and in the first...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006835
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
.... Fig. 5 Longitudinal section through an ingot showing extensive centerline shrinkage Piping can be reduced by pouring ingots with the big end up, providing risers in the ingot top, and applying sufficient hot-top material (insulating refractories or exothermic materials) immediately after...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006795
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... , 1997 , p 4575 – 4583 10.1023/A:1018677418941 16. Crowley M.S. , Know Causes of, Solutions to, CFB-Boiler Refractory Problems , Power , Vol 136 , Jan 1992 , p 54 – 57 17. Tucker R.C. and Ashari A.A. , The Structure Property Relationship of Erosion Resistant...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003568
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... , Microstructural Characterization of Surface Layers Formed on Alloy Steel During Erosion-Oxidation in a Fluidized Bed , J. Mater. Sci. Vol 32 , 1997 , p 4575 – 4583 10.1023/A:1018677418941 17. Crowley M.S. , Know Causes of, Solutions to, CFB-Boiler Refractory Problems , Power , Vol 136...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006831
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
..., generally very close to the casting surface Blacking or refractory coating inclusions G 140 Nonmetallic inclusions; oxides and reaction products G 141 Clearly defined, irregular black spots on the fractured surface of ductile cast iron Black spots G 142 (a) Inclusions in the form...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001615
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... and originate almost exclusively from foreign matter, such as refractory linings, that is occluded in the metal while it is molten or being cast, and (2) those inclusions that form in the metal because of a change in temperature or composition. This second category of nonmetallic inclusions, including oxides...