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refinery furnaces

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001322
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... layer. One or two secondary cracks were visible on the outer surface adjacent to the main crack. The inner surface showed no secondary cracks when the tube was cut open and inspected. A refinery boiler was shut down due to ruptured tubes and consequent flooding of the furnace chamber. Inspection...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001826
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
...Detail of boiler Table 1 Detail of boiler Manufacturer Hyundai Heavy Industries Co. Ltd. Type B&W single drum, radiant, natural circulation, non-reheat, pressurized furnace, outdoor, boiler El Paso type (RBE) Design pressure 101.7 barg Main steam flow TSH outlet...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001813
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... Graphitization is a reaction which has long been known. According to Wilson [ 1 ], one case of graphitization in tubes of a thermal cracking furnace in an oil refinery was reported in the United States in 1935. The incident aroused no interest, as the graphite nodules had a random distribution, and the analysis...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006812
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... Abstract This article discusses pressure vessels, piping, and associated pressure-boundary items of the types used in nuclear and conventional power plants, refineries, and chemical-processing plants. It begins by explaining the necessity of conducting a failure analysis, followed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001590
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... with grain size and retained cold work. Thus, an alloy, such as mill annealed (ASTM grain size < 5) Inconel Alloy 690 (N06690) (0.03% C max.) would be a highly resistant alloy to stress relaxation cracking. Many typical alloys for use within refineries and chemical and petrochemical facilities contain...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c9001578
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
... the vibration. Modifications to the supervisory system to allow DC coupling are being considered. This will allow the operators to avoid the unstable load ranges, because nothing can be done to prevent the Rheingan Influence. Case #2: Vibration of Steel Strip Caused by an Induction Furnace in a Steel Mill...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006807
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
...-Miller parameter (LMP), in particular, is arguably the most widely used time-temperature parameter for the design of high-temperature components. The American Petroleum Institute’s API Standard 530: Calculation of Heater-Tube Thickness in Petroleum Refineries , for example, uses the LMP for the design...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006825
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
..., petrochemicals and refineries, food processing, paper, textile, and similar other industries belong to this category. Their main function is to provide steam, hot water, or electricity, depending on the nature of the requirement. Institutions and commercial establishments such as hospitals, schools, colleges...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... Fig. 2 Weld defect (lack of fusion). This defect did not cause a failure even after 27 years in a reheater. Failures Involving Sudden Tube Rupture In the basic design of a boiler, the heat input from the combustion of fuel is balanced by the formation of steam in the furnace...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003512
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of the design process for buildings, power plants, aircraft, refineries, and ships ( Ref 16 ). For any given design, the mission and the intended use are established. Predicting the performance and design life of a component depends on defining what life or performance is required for a given duration while...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001818
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... hydrogen embrittlement metallurgical discontinuities pressure vessel stress raisers stress rupture stress-corrosion cracking welding PRESSURE VESSELS, piping, and associated pressure boundary items of the types used in nuclear and conventional power plants, refineries, and chemical-processing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006802
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... are significant as well. It is necessary, then, to pay more attention to predicting and ensuring performance. Predicting and ensuring performance is fundamentally a part of the design process for buildings, power plants, aircraft, refineries, and ships ( Ref 19 ). For any given design, the mission...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006785
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Petroleum Institute Recommended Practice 571, “Damage Mechanisms Affecting Fixed Equipment in the Refining Industry,” identifies five types of SCC (chloride, caustic, polythionic acid, wet H 2 S-SCC, and ammonia) experienced by crude units in petroleum refineries ( Fig. 2 , Ref 6 ). In industrial...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003555
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... industry. It has been shown that the kinetics of nitridation in N 2 are much higher than found in contact with NH 3 at high temperatures (980 to 1090 °C, or 1800 to 2000 °F) ( Ref 18 ). Heat treating furnaces and accessories for heat treating powder metal products are typically exposed to N 2 or N 2 -H...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003554
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Electric Furnace Conf. , 1974 17. Le May I. , Koul A.K. , and Dainty R.V. , Fracture Mechanisms in a Series of Locomotive Axle Failures , Materials Characterization , Vol 26 , 1991 , p 235 18. Vander Voort G.F. , Failures of Locomotive Axles , Failure Analysis...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006786
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Electric Furnace Conf., 1974 17. Le May I. , Koul A.K. , and Dainty R.V. , Fracture Mechanisms in a Series of Locomotive Axle Failures , Mater. Charact. , Vol 26 , 1991 , p 235 10.1016/1044-5803(91)90015-V 18. Vander Voort G.F. , Failures of Locomotive Axles...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... are much higher than found in contact with NH 3 at high temperatures (980 to 1090 °C, or 1800 to 2000 °F) ( Ref 21 ). Nitriding furnaces and accessories for heat treating powder metal products are typically exposed to N 2 or N 2 -H 2 atmospheres at elevated temperatures (~1090 °C, or 2000 °F). Both...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006778
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003553
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... or solution treating Failure to provide required temperature uniformity in furnaces Use of quenching practices too severe for a specific alloy or part shape Undue delay in transferring workpieces from the quenchant to the tempering furnace Many different types of surface-finishing treatments...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003517
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... to sensitizing conditions in refineries. Problems often arise during down periods, when this equipment, containing sulfide scales, is exposed to steam (moisture) and air. Temper Embrittlement Temper embrittlement occurs predominantly in alloy steels subjected to a temperature range that results...