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refinement process

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001270
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... on. All of these conditions can produce cracks that open during subsequent thermal processing. The occurrence of cracks was most prevalent in material that was vanadium grain refined with a vanadium content of less than 0.06%. Remedial Action When parting line separation occurs, the forging process...
Image
Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 83 Relationship between austenitization processing parameters and grain size for a grain-refined and non-grain-refined AISI 1060 steel. (a) Effect of austenitization temperature and 2 h soaking time. (b) Effect of austenitizing time. Source: Ref 30 More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c0046911
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... metal arc process using E6010 welding rod and four passes on each side; the refined microstructure of this weld is shown in Fig. 1(b) . Chemical analyses of the welds indicated that the silicon content of the manual (shielded metal arc) weld was 0.54%, whereas that of the semiautomatic (submerged arc...
Image
Published: 01 December 2019
Fig. 13 The finite element model with and without the refined meshings around the hole of casting process More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c0065825
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
..., sulfur content, and grain refining additives, required steelmaking technology enhancements. Improved steel processing procedures, chiefly hot-working temperature and deformation control, were also required to optimize microstructure and properties. References References 1. Fearnehough G.D...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c9001619
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... of the splines. SEM examination revealed the splined shaft failed by fretting fatigue. Fretting fatigue Paper machines Shafts (power) 4340 UNS G43400 Fretting wear Fatigue fracture Wood chips can be efficiently turned into fiber for newsprint manufacture by the process of disc refining...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001813
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... nodules demands mobility of carbon atoms available from the dissolution of pre-existing carbides having compositions of the form M x C y . As with any reaction depending on diffusion, the temperature to which the material is exposed is a determining factor in the rate of the process. In the 1950s...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001328
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... and intergranular carbides which contributed to cracking. It was recommended that stresses be reduced and /or that materials and components be changed. Refinements in welding procedures and implementation of preweld/postweld heat treatments were recommended also. Carbide precipitation Distortion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001907
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... showed that the parts were machined from stock rather than forged, and the threads were cut rather than rolled. Figure 1 details the etched grain flow within the threads. A thread rolling process would have produced a grain flow that followed the contour of the threads; however, the grain flow in Fig...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001774
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... the formation of polythionic acid in the process gas. ring type pipe joint fracture polythionic acid stainless steel transgranular fracture fractography creep strength 347 (austenitic wrought stainless steel) UNS S34700 321 (austenitic wrought stainless steel) UNS S32100 Introduction...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001601
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... of passes necessary to achieve the final thickness are 45% and three passes, respectively. Based on the adverse effects of inclusions on the flow forming process, it is recommended that electroslag refined (ESR) grade steel be used. These observations are in agreement with published work on flow forming. 3...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c9001514
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
... flange. The darker and small grained microstructure is that of the original condition of the sheet metal. The lighter colored regions showing grain refining and coarse grain structure, constitute a heat affected zone. This microstructure is a consequence of thermal annealing. There is no microstructural...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.rail.c9001531
EISBN: 978-1-62708-231-0
... In the present investigation, the main failure modes of cartwheel, especially rim cracking, were analyzed. The mechanical properties of six kinds of wheel steels used in China with different carbon content and processing were measured. Their effect on performance of cartwheel was analyzed. 2. Materials...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003558
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... For applications that are more sensitive to wear, analytical relationships for detailing the wear process may then be used to further refine and evaluate designs. Once hardware is built and some testing done, worn parts are available for examination, and the activities are identical to those that started...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0048835
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... not have been predicted by the June 1977 revision of the Nelson Curve for that material. As a result of this experience, a major refiner instituted regular ultrasonic inspections of all welds in its Fe-C-0.5Mo steel desulfurizers. Investigation During a routine examination of a naphtha desulfurizer...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003540
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... corrosion cracking steels INTERGRANULAR FRACTURE is the decohesion that may occur along a weakened grain boundary. Typically, the grain boundaries in polycrystalline materials are stronger than individual grains in a properly processed material below its creep-regime temperature. The grain boundaries...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006777
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... are thus the preferential region for congregation and segregation of impurities. Typically, the grain boundaries in polycrystalline materials are stronger than individual grains in a properly processed material below its creep-regime temperature. The grain boundaries are disruptions between the crystal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006800
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
..., processes, and product form) can be developed further during configuration design. This materials-first approach involves the selection of a general class of materials during conceptual design and further refines the alternatives through the iterative process of design. The selection process may involve...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003501
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... are applied, the design concept (including preliminary selection of materials, processes, and product form) can be developed further during configuration design. This materials-first approach involves the selection of a general class of materials during conceptual design and further refines the alternatives...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006831
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... and decarburization. Both of these definitions apply equally well to a casting or a weldment. Proper selection of casting process, alloy selection, part and mold design, solidification control, and grain refinement minimize hot cracking problems. Hot strength (resistance to cracking at solidification temperature...