1-20 of 93 Search Results for

reference electrodes

Follow your search
Access your saved searches in your account

Would you like to receive an alert when new items match your search?
Close Modal
Sort by
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001560
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... polarization and linear polarization techniques. A standard three electrode cell was used with the steel as the working electrode, a saturated calomel electrode as the reference electrode, and a platinum electrode as the auxiliary electrode. A PAR 175 universal programmer, PAR 173 potentiostat with model 376...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001525
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
...-steam dried steel panels. After each sample was evaluated via EIS, it was further evaluated via cyclic polarization testing. In this test, the open circuit potential (OCP) of the sample with respect to the reference electrode is initially measured. The potential is then lowered slightly, making...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001702
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... mapping. Rebar half-cell potential measurements were then taken using the procedure specified in ASTM C 876-87 ( 14 ). A high impedance voltmeter was connected between the rebar and a reference electrode. A Cu/CuSO 4 reference electrode, an electrical junction device (sponge), and electrical contact...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001820
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
.... The test was performed using a standard glass cell containing the working electrode (specimen) and a graphite counter electrode. Potentials were measured with reference to a saturated calomel electrode (SCE) interfaced to the test solution via a salt bridge. A potentiostat system was utilized to perform...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001769
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... with voltamaster-1 software. Mild steel coupon of size 1 cm 2 as working electrode a Saturated Calomel Electrode (SCE) as a reference electrode and a large platinum electrode were employed for polarization study. The system was allowed to attain a steady potential value for 10 min. The steady-state polarization...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c9001599
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
...Abstract Abstract Failure of a pilot scale test melter resulted from severe overheating of an Inconel 690 (690) jacketed molybdenum electrode. Extreme temperatures were required to melt the glass during this campaign because the feed material contained a very high waste loading. Metallurgical...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0048751
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... to the weld seam, were revealed by metallographic examination (hot shortness). It was indicated by energy-dispersive spectroscopy that type 316 electrode was not used for the root pass and instead a nickel-copper alloy electrode was employed. It was thus concluded that cracking was caused due to the use...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0047673
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... improper electrode contact. Investigation Conclusions Recommendations Selected Reference Selected Reference • Failures Related to Welding , Failure Analysis and Prevention , Vol 11 , ASM Handbook , ASM International , 2002 , p 156 – 191 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003509 Visual...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c0047537
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
...) line pipe. The girth welds were fabricated using standard vertical down stove pipe-welding procedures with E7010 cellulosic electrodes. Investigation Conclusions Selected References Selected References • Eiber R.J. , Failures of Pipelines , Failure Analysis and Prevention , Vol...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006783
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... of various materials of interest in the electrolyte of interest against a reference electrode half-cell, such as saturated calomel, as described by the procedure in ASTM G 82 ( Ref 3 ). To prepare a valid galvanic series for a given set of materials and environment of interest, all the factors affecting...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001779
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... reference electrode, were carried out to determine the corrosion rate of the pump alloy in service. Discussion The visual inspection of damaged parts showed that the mechanical degradations were widespread on inner surface of the pump body, in the downside of water entrance section. The most...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c0047586
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
... weld was attributed to unfavorable welding practice that accentuated thermal contraction stresses and caused hot tearing. Recommendations involved use of a small-diameter welding electrode, a lower heat input, and deposition in shallow layers that could be effectively peened between passes to minimize...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0047566
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
..., the low-carbon steel handle was welded to low-carbon steel plate, using low-carbon steel electrodes. This plate was then welded to the type 502 stainless steel plate with type 310 stainless steel electrodes. This design produced a large weld section over which the load was distributed. Chemical...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001744
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... cracks formed during the fabrication of the axle mounting plate. So-called all-purpose electrodes were used. Thus, the main cause for failure was a manufacturing deficiency-fatigue failure developed because of improper welding during fabrication of the axle. The proper electrode should have been used...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001159
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... electrodes to the unalloyed mild steel pipe of larger diam. Visual inspection showed corrosion and deep, trench-like erosion over the entire circumference of the seam on the side of the thicker mild steel pipe. Examination using the V2-A solution for picral etch showed the microstructure of the unalloyed...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003509
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... weld travel speed Absence of preheat or postheat Low interpass temperature Poor weld profile Poor electrode manipulation Thin weld-bead cross section (particularly in the first pass) Improper fit-up Low weld current Small electrode diameter Improper polarity Improper joint...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c9001514
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
... sill also had separated. This separation is shown in Figure 7 of the underside of the car. The same separation was visible from the interior of the vehicle. Fig. 7 Separation of upper sill (arrow) viewed from under car with rocker panel cut away Using electrode indentations as a guide...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001387
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... the possibility of iron deposition from the reduction of ferrous ions in the electrolyte. It is possible that the increasing thickness of the deposit was closing the gap between the electrodes, producing arcing that resulted in localized heating of the upper portion of the nickel anode. This phenomenon produced...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c0047545
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
..., which was attributed to the combination of weld porosity, many slag inclusions and the formation of brittle martensite in the HAZ. A new repair weld was made using an E312 stainless steel electrode, which provides a weld deposit that contains considerable ferrite to prevent hot cracking. Before welding...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c0047508
EISBN: 978-1-62708-221-1
... and drilled for bolting on a heavy steel plate. The tank was filled to a record height. In mid-Jan the temperature dropped to -31 deg C (-23 deg F), with high winds. The tank split open and collapsed. The welding used the shielded metal arc process with E6010 electrodes, which could lead to weld porosity...