1-20 of 113 Search Results for

reference electrode

Follow your search
Access your saved searches in your account

Would you like to receive an alert when new items match your search?
Close Modal
Sort by
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0048751
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... to the weld seam, were revealed by metallographic examination (hot shortness). It was indicated by energy-dispersive spectroscopy that type 316 electrode was not used for the root pass and instead a nickel-copper alloy electrode was employed. It was thus concluded that cracking was caused due to the use...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0047673
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
.... Recommendations The problem could be solved by better forming procedures to provide an accurate fit-up that would not interfere with electrode alignment. Selected Reference Selected Reference • Failures Related to Welding , Failure Analysis and Prevention , Vol 11 , ASM Handbook , ASM...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001560
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... as the reference electrode, and a platinum electrode as the auxiliary electrode. A PAR 175 universal programmer, PAR 173 potentiostat with model 376 logarithmic current converter interface, and a H.P. 7044 x-y recorder comprised the test equipment. ASTM standard G-59-78 entitled “Standard Practice for Conducting...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c9001599
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
... Abstract Failure of a pilot scale test melter resulted from severe overheating of an Inconel 690 (690) jacketed molybdenum electrode. Extreme temperatures were required to melt the glass during this campaign because the feed material contained a very high waste loading. Metallurgical evaluation...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c0047537
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... standard vertical down stove pipe-welding procedures with E7010 cellulosic electrodes. The crack started partially as a result of incomplete fusion on the pipe side wall, which in turn was a result of misalignment of the two pipes. The crack was typical of hydrogen cracking. Girth welds can be made using...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001525
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
..., the open circuit potential (OCP) of the sample with respect to the reference electrode is initially measured. The potential is then lowered slightly, making the sample slightly cathodic. The potential is then slowly increased, eventually making the sample anodic, and forcing corrosion and pitting...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0047566
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
.... This plate was then welded to the type 502 stainless steel plate with type 310 stainless steel electrodes. This design produced a large weld section over which the load was distributed. Selected Reference Selected Reference • Failures Related to Welding , Failure Analysis and Prevention , Vol 11...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c0047586
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
... was attributed to unfavorable welding practice that accentuated thermal contraction stresses and caused hot tearing. Recommendations involved use of a small-diameter welding electrode, a lower heat input, and deposition in shallow layers that could be effectively peened between passes to minimize internal stress...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001744
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... formed during the fabrication of the axle mounting plate. So-called all-purpose electrodes were used. Thus, the main cause for failure was a manufacturing deficiency-fatigue failure developed because of improper welding during fabrication of the axle. The proper electrode should have been used...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c0047545
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
... was attributed to the combination of weld porosity, many slag inclusions and the formation of brittle martensite in the HAZ. A new repair weld was made using an E312 stainless steel electrode, which provides a weld deposit that contains considerable ferrite to prevent hot cracking. Before welding, the crankshaft...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001159
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... Abstract A recuperator used for preheating the combustion air for a rolling mill furnace failed after a relatively short service time because of leakage of the pipes in the colder part. The 6 % chrome steel pipes used for the warmer part connected by means of welding with austenitic electrodes...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c0047508
EISBN: 978-1-62708-221-1
... and drilled for bolting on a heavy steel plate. The tank was filled to a record height. In mid-Jan the temperature dropped to -31 deg C (-23 deg F), with high winds. The tank split open and collapsed. The welding used the shielded metal arc process with E6010 electrodes, which could lead to weld porosity...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006913
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... evaluation of the material being tested. (b) Electrodes are normally made from either brass or stainless steel. Reference shall be made to the standard governing the material to be tested to determine which, if either, material is preferable. (c) The surfaces of the electrodes shall be polished...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0047681
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... the temperature, by an increase in the electrode force, or both. Selected References Selected References • Failures Related to Welding , Failure Analysis and Prevention , Vol 11 , ASM Handbook , ASM International , 2002 , p 156 – 191 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003509 • Fatigue Failures...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.pulp.c9001565
EISBN: 978-1-62708-230-3
... Abstract A stainless steel pipe transferring hot white liquor solution of sodium hydroxide and sodium sulfite, developed leaks adjacent to the welds within four years of service. The stainless steel pipe was AISI type 304 and welded with E308 weld electrodes. The service temperature was 190 deg...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c0047432
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
... Abstract The conveyor chain link failed by fracturing through a fabrication weld after some time in service. The link was made of cast low-alloy steel heat treated to a hardness of 285 HRB. The fabrication weld was made using E7018 electrodes. The fracture surfaces were almost entirely covered...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001820
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... a standard glass cell containing the working electrode (specimen) and a graphite counter electrode. Potentials were measured with reference to a saturated calomel electrode (SCE) interfaced to the test solution via a salt bridge. A potentiostat system was utilized to perform and analyze the potentiodynamic...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001207
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... Abstract Pipes made of low-carbon Thomas steel had been welded longitudinally employing the carbon-arc process with bare electrode wire made for argon-shielded arc welding. Difficulties were encountered during the cutting of threads because of the presence of hard spots. Microstructural...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c9001514
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
... had separated. This separation is shown in Figure 7 of the underside of the car. The same separation was visible from the interior of the vehicle. Fig. 7 Separation of upper sill (arrow) viewed from under car with rocker panel cut away Using electrode indentations as a guide, locations...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.rail.c0048087
EISBN: 978-1-62708-231-0
... were found by magnetic-particle inspection. The cracks were revealed by metallographic examination to have originated in the HAZs in the rail section. Cracks in welds and in HAZs resulting from arcing the electrode adjacent to the weld and weld spatter were also revealed. The tram-rail assembly...