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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006820
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... lubrication, the measurement of the backlash, and the necessary factors for starting the failure analysis. Next, the article explains various gear failure causes, including wear, scuffing, Hertzian fatigue, cracking, fracture, and bending fatigue, and finally presents examples of gear and reducer failure...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001327
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... Fig. 12 Transgranular crack, 6 mm (0.24 in) long. 10% nital etch. Fig. 1 Reducer section after cutting. A crack is visible in the right-hand section -upper left. There is no evidence of erosion or corrosion damage. Fig. 2 Area of fracture showing beach marks on the surface...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001060
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
..., Practice A, to determine susceptibility to intergranular corrosion. The etching resulted in ditches surrounding each grain, which was unacceptable. 75×. Abstract A type 316 stainless steel pipe reducer section failed in service of bleached pulp stock transfer within 2 years in a pulp and paper...
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Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 3 Various methods of reducing stress concentration at shoulder required for locating bearing races, etc. More
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Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 7 Cross section of reduced wall thickness, as polished, showing general pitting (cratering) 50× More
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Published: 01 December 1993
Fig. 4 View of fractured surface. Arrows indicate area of reduced wall thickness. More
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Published: 01 December 1993
Fig. 1 Reducer section after cutting. A crack is visible in the right-hand section -upper left. There is no evidence of erosion or corrosion damage. More
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Published: 01 December 1993
Fig. 4 Low-magnification composite SEM micrograph of the first reducer crack. Beach marks and surface pitting are evident More
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Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 9 Energy-dispersive x-ray analysis along the streak in rail 5-1 (reduced 30% in reproduction). More
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Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 3 Tracing (reduced in size) from x-ray of plate prior to fracture. Unused plates are straight as shown by dashed line. More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001486
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... of the piston. The exact mechanism of cavitation damage is not entirely clear. Two schools of thought have developed, one supporting an essentially erosive, and the other an essentially corrosive, mechanism. Measures to prevent, or reduce, cavitation damage should be considered firstly from the aspect of design...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0009190
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... that the failure resulted from several interrelated factors: the lubricant viscosity was too low causing high temperatures; no antiscuff additives were used; a gearbox designed as a speed reducer was used as a speed increaser (the designer selected a long-addendum tooth for the pinion); the gear teeth were...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c9001596
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... deflection, greatly increasing the torsional stresses on the spring. To understand the fatigue limits under these test conditions, a bench test was used to establish the fatigue strength of the springs. The bench tests showed that the failed springs had an unacceptable surface texture that reduced...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0091617
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... consisted of a flange made from a casting, and a reducing cone, a short length of pipe, and a 90 deg elbow, all made of 13 mm thick plate. A liner wrapped with insulation was welded to the smaller end of the reducing cone. All of the piping up to the flange was wrapped with insulation. Investigation (visual...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001109
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... life of the HH grade cast stainless steel bars was reduced from more than 7 years to approximately 9 months. Several corroded grate bars were examined metallographically and by electron microscopy to determine the causes of the accelerated corrosion. Chemical and X-ray diffraction analyses were also...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001032
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... cracking was caused by overheating that produced intergranular corrosion in both the fin and the wick. Recommendations for alleviating the corrosion problem included reducing the heat flux, redesigning the wick, and reducing the oxygen content of the sodium. References References 1. Ziph B...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
.... Corrective action involved redesigning the steering arm to increase the minimum forging radius and reduce the stress level at the inner-bend radius, and reducing the level of power assistance to the wheels to encourage the driver to put the vehicle in motion prior to turning. Reference Reference 1...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001328
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
.... 63× Abstract During 5.7 years of service, dye penetrant inspection of Inconel 800H pigtail connections regularly showed cracks at weld toes. Weld repairs were not able to prevent reoccurrence but often aggravated the condition. Samples containing small, but detectable, reducer-to-pigtail...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001341
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... cracking suggested a distinct, synergistic effect of applied tensile stress with the contamination. Stress analysis found that stress alone was not enough to cause failure; however the operating stresses in the 100 deg bends were higher than at most other locations in the superheater Reduced creep...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001345
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... deposits. Comparison of the microstructure and hardness of the swaged region and unswaged Grade TP 304 stainless steel tube metal indicated that the swaged section was not annealed to reduce the effects of cold working. The high hardness created during swaging increased the stainless steel's susceptibility...